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Copy of Chapter 18

The Curriculum
by

Katie Pitman

on 3 December 2014

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Transcript of Copy of Chapter 18

Lesson Plans
Developmental Goals: Statements that tell the “why” of the activity
Learning Objective: Describes the expected outcome of an activity
Materials: Everything that is needed for the activity
Motivation: Describes how you will gain the children’s attention
Procedures: Step by step directions - in order
Closure / Transition: How an activity will end
Evaluation: Continually evaluating the curriculum
Written Plans
Block Plan: A block plan is an overall view of the curriculum. It outlines the general plans.
Lesson Plan: A lesson plan is more detailed than a block plan. It outlines specific actions and activities that will be used to meet goals and objectives.
Concepts Based on the Theme
A concept is a generalized idea or notion.

Learning basic concepts helps the children to understand their world. By forming concepts, children learn to group experiences in a meaningful way.
Themes
A theme is one main topic or idea around which the classroom activities are planned. Connecting activities through the use of a theme allows children to build on previous learning.
Emergent Curriculum
The emergent curriculum is child-centered. It “emerges” from the children’s interests and experiences. This type of curriculum is an alternative to the teacher’s selection of themes in advance.
The curriculum might emerge from :
Events
Things
People
Consider Learning Characteristics
The children in each classroom have a wide range of learning characteristics.
Some work slowly & others quickly
Some are attentive and others bore easily
Some are quick decision makers while others take more time

Evaluate children’s learning characteristics in relation to your own.
Auditory Learners
Auditory learners are those who learn best
through hearing..

You will find that auditory learners enjoy listening.
To meet their needs, music, stories, and poems need to be included in the curriculum.
Visual Learners
Visual learners depend a great deal on
the sense of sight.

These children notice small changes in the environment.
Visual learners enjoy looking at books and other objects.
Field-Independent
Field-Independent children like to try new activities.
They enjoy discovery.
These children do not have to be urged to try new activities.
Children who are field-independent will rarely contact the teacher for help.
Field-independent children prefer to work on their own.
They enjoy competition as well as individual recognition.
When engaged in an activity, they generally do not notice what is going on around them.
Field-Sensitive
Field-sensitive children like to work with others.
They are helpful.
They will volunteer and assist others in picking up blocks, setting the table, and finding a place for a puzzle piece.
They will try to gain your attention.
When introduced to a new activity, field-sensitive
Consider Learning Styles
When planning activities for young children, consider the diversity of individual learning styles. Basic learning styles include field- sensitive, field-independent, visual learner, and auditory learner.
Balance Learning Activities
Structured /Unstructured Activities
Children should spend most of their time in self-initiated play with unstructured activities.
Indoor / Outdoor Play
Active / Quiet Learning Activities
Planning too many active learning activities in a row may overstimulate some children.
Choose the Skills and Content to Cover
Three basic questions can help you with this process.
Is the information worth knowing?
Ask yourself if the outcome will help the child better cope with his or her surroundings.
Is the information testable?
The child should be able to see firsthand that the information is true.
Is the information developmentally appropriate?
Factors to Consider in Curriculum Planning
Choose the Skills and Content to Cover


Balance Learning Activities


Consider Learning Styles
Teachable Moment
In teaching, timing is important. A teachable moment is an unexpected event the teacher can use as a learning opportunity. It occurs when the children are curious and responsive to being taught. These occasions are not planned.
Direct and Indirect Learning Experiences
Direct learning experiences are planned with a special goal in mind.
For instance, a carpentry learning activity may be planned to develop fine motor skills and to teach the use of safety goggles.
Indirect learning experiences occur on the spur of the moment .
The Content and Process-Centered Curriculum
Though there are a number of approaches to curriculum planning, the most popular method is the content and process-centered approach. Learning is seen as a constant process of exploring and questioning the environment. A hands-on curriculum is stressed. All four areas of child development- social, emotional, physical, and cognitive- are included.
Assessment
Every child is unique, even though there are many similarities within age groups. For this reason, assessment is necessary in order to plan a curriculum that is both individualized and age appropriate for all areas of learning.
Who Plans the Curriculum?
Curriculum development can involve one person or several staff members.

Some child care corporations provide the directors of their centers with preplanned curriculum units.
Advantages: For a staff with little training or no experience / Activities, procedures and suggestions are often outlined in detail
Disadvantages: It may not factor in the individual differences and learning styles of the children in your center.
Each of these goals is broad. The goals relate to all four areas of development since a developmentally appropriate curriculum considers the whole child.
More Goals
To develop a curiosity about the world
To develop positive social skills, including cooperation and interdependence
To develop respect for one’s own rights as well as the rights of others
To develop an understanding of the relationship between people, events, and objects
Goals for children in an early childhood setting might include the following:
To develop a positive self-concept and attitude toward learning
To develop independence
To develop problem-solving skills
To respect and understand cultural diversity
To develop effective language skills, both listening and speaking
To develop fine motor coordination
To develop gross motor coordination
To develop personal initiative
Developing Program Goals
In an early childhood program the program goals outline the philosophy of the center. Program goals are broad statements of purpose that state the desired end results – what is to be achieved. Some people describe goals as the “why” of the curriculum.
Curriculum
A developmentally appropriate curriculum tailors learning experiences to children’s ages, stages of development, interest, needs, abilities, and experiences. The curriculum should provide the children an opportunity to make meaningful choices. It also requires detailed planning.
Curriculum
A good curriculum also focuses on children’s learning styles and characteristics. It is based on the premise that play is an important part of the curriculum. It often organizes important concepts into themes.
Curriculum
A developmentally appropriate early childhood curriculum is based on how children develop and learn. It consists of a wide range of concepts, experiences, and materials designed to meet the developmental needs of a group of children. These needs include their social, emotional, physical, and cognitive needs. It involves determining what children need to be able to do and what they need to know.
After studying this chapter, you will be able to:
Develop program goals
Indicate who is involved in curriculum development
Cite the importance of assessment in curriculum planning
Explain the content and process-centered approach to curriculum development
Describe factors to consider in curriculum planning
Illustrate the use of themes as a basis for planning curriculum
Write a block plan and lesson plan for one week of a program
The Curriculum
Chapter 18
In closing…
A staff who provides a quality early childhood program is continually evaluating the curriculum and finding ways to improve their teaching plans.
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