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Copy of Tree of Life : Animalia

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Elysia Jackson

on 19 January 2013

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Transcript of Copy of Tree of Life : Animalia

Trunk -multicellular (metazons) eukaryotic -Ingestive heterotrophs Characteristics Of Animalia -Symmetry -Digestive patterns -Cells specialized for specific function -Organized cells, tissue, organ, etc. -Reproduce sexually Reproduction -reproduce sexually & asexually -Differentiated haploid cells (egg/sperm) -most diploid; two identical copies of genetic material -embryonic stages -Vertebrates (sexually) Invertebrates (asexually) Examples of asexual reproduction Budding- offspring grows out of body of parent. I.e. Hydra (lives in water) Gemmule Formation- Parent animal proceeds to release mass of special cells that have an opportunity to develop into offspring. I.e. Sponges Circulation -Open circulatory system i.e mollusks & anthropoids -Closed circulatory system i.e annelids & vertebrates -No circulatory system includes, cnidarians &flatworms Impact -Hetertrophs; get energy by eating other organisms -Produce Carbon Dioxide gas -Most animals mobile -Maintain environmental balance -Provide economic balance Gas Exchange -Diffusion; absorbing oxygen through the skin. I.e worms -Gill Filaments and Gills for aquatic animals i.e. fish -Most land animals obtain either lungs or a trachea system. Digestion -Incomplete: Only one opening for food as well as waste -Complete: Two bodily openings, one for waste, one for consumption Chordata Arthropoda Annelida Mollusca Nematoda Platyhelminthes Coelenterata Porifera -less than three percent of animals belong to this phylum -Defining feature of chordates is a rodlike structure called a notocord (evolutionary forerunner of the spine) -earliest recorded chordates, more than 550million years ago -Generally fast moving animals; obtaining rapid reactions, well developed nervous systems and sizable brains -Birds/mammals will use energy from food to maintain constant optimum temp. Animals in this phylum include: fish, reptiles, birds, mammals (animals with internal skeleton) Vertebrates -More known species than all of the other phylums combined -Varying ranges of lifestyle, including; grazing, predation, filtering food particles as well as water, drinking fluids such as nectar or blood -Anthropods coated with an exoskeleton called chitin -As growth takes place they must molt their exoskeleton (replacement slightly larger) -Exoskeleton helps protect as well as reduce water loss in dry habitats -Body segmentation noticed in all anthropods -Aquatic anthropods breathe using gills. Land anthropods use trachea -This phylum contains approximately 1,230,000 species -Known as segmented worms which include earthworms, ragworms and leeches -Many annelids highly mobile on both land and water -About 15,000 different species -About 110,000 species of mollusca -Shell not only used for protection but helps prevent mollusca's from drying out -Shoft body carried on large muscular foot -Head senses using eyes as well as tenticles -Internal organs (viscera) contained in visceral hump, covered by fleshy mantle -Most species; mantle secretes substance to form shell -Most feed with a tounge known as a radula -Radula covered in teeth which is coated in chitin, this then moves forward and backward in order to break up food into more reasonable pieces -Many use gills for respiratory purposes (snails and slugs use lungs) -Live in soil, fresh water as well as marine habitats -Quite a lot are parasites -Can produce hundreds of thousands of eggs per day -Are able to enclose themselves in a cyst; becoming dormant if need be -Muscle-lined body cavity as well as two openings to their gut (Mouth & Anus) -Bodies covered in tough layer known as a cuticle -Like Anthropods; they moult as they grow -About 20,000 -Found in various forms in the ocean, freshwater ponds, even within the bodies of other animals -Superficially resemble leeches -Do not contain a circulatory system or organs for breathing -Use entire body surface to absorb oxygen from moisture outside -Around 20,000 species -Smallest of flatworms have no gut and absorb food through skin -Other species have a gut with one opening but branches frequently, this is so digested food is able to reach all tissues -Mostly marine animals -Adult sponges live permanently attached to rocks, corals, and shipwrecks -A few species of sponges live in freshwater -Vary in both size and shape, from thin sheets to large barrels, although all have same basic structure -Contain different types of specialized cells, but no organs -Systems of water canals branch through the sponge, water is drawn into them through tiny pores in sponge's surface -Special chambers (cells) lining the water canals trap and engulf bacteria from plankton for food, and waste water will exit through large openings called osculae -Many sponges classically spongy however others can be hard as rock, soft, and even slimy -Supporting skeleton consists of tiny spicules of silicon dioxide or calcium carbonate -Spicules vary in shape and number between species, can be used in identification -Marine segmented worms carry bundles of bristles along their body, typically borne on little paddels that aide with swimming, burrowing, even walking. Known as polychaetes or bristle worms -Land-living earth worms are important recyclers of dead vegetation and aerators of soil -Earthworms and leeches have a saddle-shaped, glandular structure around bodies called a clitellum, used to make egg cocoons White Shark Cane Toad White Rhinoceros -The scientific name for a white shark is a "Carcharodon carcharias" -Sharks are cartilaginous fishes -Live within the ocean, a predatory species which will roam in open water -Skin is protected by tooth like scales known as denticles -Continually on the move, do not have a gas-filled swim bladder to maintain their buoyancy therefore sink if they stop swimming -Unlike mammals; young are independent from birth and neither parent takes any interest in their offspring -Also know as the marine toad, mainly a resident of dry environments, scrub, and savanna -One of the largest toads in the world Scientific name is "Rhinella marina" -Commonly lives around human settlements, often seen under streetlights waiting for insects to fall -Females are larger than males and can lay more than 20,000 eggs in a single clutch -Have become a pest in Australia, poisonous to native animals, harmful to humans and breed rapidly out of control -About 10-24cm in size -Also known as "Ceratotherium simum" -Habitat is located in the African plains -Mild-tempered vegetarian -Horns are used almost entirely in self-defense or for protecting the young -Adult rhinoceroses generally live on their own -Species has suffered drastic decline in numbers and range do to hunting and habitat loss -Somewhat nearsighted do to the fact that eyes are located on the side of the head, making it strenuous to see straight ahead Blue-Spotted Ribbontail Ray -Only uses lethal barbed tail to defend itself -Much time is spent resting motionless on sandy patches among coral, hidden under overhangs -Often only its bright blue tail gives it away to divers -To swim it will flap its two wing-like pectoral fins -Swim inshore to feed on invertebrates in shallow water during rising tide -Scientific name is "Taeniura lymma" Panther Chameleon -Lives in trees within humid scrub throughout Madagascar, off the east coast of Africa and has recently been introduced to Mauritius and Reunion -Ranges from 40-56cm in length -Scientific name is "Furcifer pardalis" - -Feet are so well adapted to grasping branches that it is difficult to even walk across a flat surface -Ability to change color determines mood and social status Mandrill -Mandrill is the largest of all monkeys -Scientific name is "Mandrillus sphinx" -Live in dense rain forests located in places such as, Western Central Africa, Nigeria and Cameroon -Mandrills diet mainly consists of fruit -Live in troops; society maintains a strict hierarchy, contains a dominant male, several females, babies, (non breeding) lower rank males -Dominant male fearsome looking, temperament to match -Brightness of skin pigments is controlled by hormones, color good indicator of strength and ferocity Octopus -Scientific name is the "Octopus vulgaris" -One of the most intelligent of all invertebrates -Excellent vision and eight grasping arms or tentacles also used for crawling -Prefers habitat on rocky coastal waters -Widespread in tropical and warm temperate waters -Diet consists of crustaceans, shelled mollusks -Tentacle span 1.5-3m -Can change color in an instant, can squeeze through very narrow crevices Channeled Apple Snail -Only order of gilled snails containing no marine species -Most live in freshwater, some live on land -Gills in the mantle cavity that can function as a lung, allowing survival in periods of drought -Around 10-15cm in length -Tropical American species, now an invasive pest -Scientific name, "Pomacea canaliculata" Jungle Nymph Stick Insect -Both males and females have wings although females are flightless -Feed on the foliage of a range of different plants, including durian, guava, and mango -Scientific name: Heteropteryx dilatata -If disturbed, make a loud hissing sound using their short wings, and splay their strong, spiny hind legs in a defensive posture -Up to 15.5cm long -Has become a popular pet worldwide -Habitat in the tropical rainforest Mexican Red-Kneed Tarantula -Females can live up to 30 years, Males up to six -Nickname of bird-eater because of size -Most of their diet consists of fellow anthropods, they can and do take down small mammals and reptiles when opportunity arises -Habitats located in tropical deciduous forests -Native to Mexico, living in burrows in earth banks, where safe to molt/lay eggs -Scientific name is "Brachypelma smithi" Robber Crab -Scientific name is "Birgus latro" -Largest land-living arthropod -Inhabits Indo-Pacific island forests -Consumes coconuts using its massive pincers -Has unequal-sized claws used for signaling purposes -30-40cm in length Sludge Worm -Scientific name: "Tubifex sp." -Commonly seen in mud polluted by sewage -Front end will be buried, rear end wiggling to extract oxygen -Ranges from 2-7cm Christmas Tree Tube Worm -Characterized by spiral whorls of tentacles -Generally 4-7cm in length -Scientific name: "Spirobranchus giganteus" -Tentacles used for feeding and extracting oxygen -Species is wide spread on tropical reefs Large Intestinal Roundworm -Common parasite found within humans -Has a pale, cylinder body -Scientific name: "Ascaris sp." -Found in regions of poor sanitation -Species enters the intestine in contaminated food before infecting the lungs -15-35cm in length New World Hookworm -Reaches 7-11mm -Scientific name:"Necator americanus" -Hookworm larvae penetrate skin and travel in the blood to the lungs of their host -Crawl to the throat, are swallowed, and mature in the gut -This species parasitizes humans, dogs and cats Pork Tapeworm -Pork tapeworm ranges from 2-7m in length -Scientific name: "Taenia solium" -Tapeworms are intestinal parasites -At an intermediate stage may invade muscle as cysts -Species lives within pigs -May pass to humans in infected meat Giant Intestinal Fluke -One of the largest flukes to infect humans -Scientific name: "Fasciolopsis buski" -East Asian species -Lives only in the upper intestine; does not enter other organs -7.5cm long Cattle-Snoring Blood Fluke -Scientific name of species: "Schistosoma nasale" -Parasite transmitted through freshwater snails -Around 10mm in length -Infects cattle, causing nasal growths that make cattle snore when breathing Giant Leaf Flatworm -North American species -Scientific name of the species: "Kaburakia excelsa" -Mainly carnivorous -Intertidal species -Smothers prey with a mouth-bearing extension of its gut -8-10cm in length Mediterranean Bath Sponge -Scientific name is: "Spongia officinalis adriatica" -Pliable elastic skeleton -Maintains its shape even after its been cleaned and dried -Found mostly in the Mediterranean ocean -Used for washing Breadcrumb Sponge -Northeastern Atlantic sponge -Grows as crusts on rocky shores and in shallow water -30cm in length -Scientific name is: "Halichondria panicea -Color comes from symbiotic algae Red Purse Sponge -Located in Malaysia as well as Indonesia -Sponge that is shaped like a small gourd -8cm long -Grows between coral heads on shallow reefs -Scientific name is; "Grantessa sp." -Phylum includes, jellyfish, hydras, and corals -Stinging tentacles to catch live prey; digest in simple sac like gut -All are aquatic, and most are marine -Two body plans: a free swimming bell-like shape called a medusa (seen in jellyfish) and a static polyp (anemones) -No head or front -11,300 different species within the phylum -Single gut opening, used to take in food as well as eliminate waste products -Nervous system consists of a simple network of fibers; there is no brain -Outer skin as well as inner is some species, are peppered with tiny stinging capsules; unique to animals of this phylum Common Obelia -Scientific name is the "Obelia geniculata" -Worldwide hydrozoan -Abundant on intertidal seaweeds -Ranging in 3-5cm in length -Grows in zigzag colonies of cup-encased polyps that sprout from creeping horizontal stems Toadstool Leather Coral -Found in the tropical reefs of the Indo-Pacific -Approximately 1-6m long -Toadstool is a soft coral -Scientific name: "Sarcophyton trocheliophorum" -Forms enormous leathery colonies on tropical reefs Sea Wasp -Ranges from 0.3-3m long -Scientific name:"Chironex fleckeri" -Indo-Pacific species -The largest box jellyfish delivers a very painful sting and has even caused human fatalities Flamboyant Cuttlefish -Scientifc name of the animal is "Metasepia pfefferi" -Located within the Indo-Pacific -(Unusual among cuttlefish) Its habitat of using its tentacles to walk -Tentacles are located at the front -6-7cm in length -Recently shown to be a poisonous cuttlefish Echinodermata -Only large invertebrate phylum entirely restricted to saltwater -Echinoderm means "spiny skinned" -Hard calcified structures called ossicles that make up internal skeleton of these animals -Only animals with a water transport system -Tough prickly skin offers good protection from potential predators -Many have tiny pincer like projections, sometimes venomous -About 7,000 species -Urchins covered with formidable spine; can inflict serious injuries on humans Red Feather Star -Around 10-15cm in length -Scientific name is "Himerometra robustipinna" -Feather star inhabits Indo-Pacific coastal waters -Found clinging to corals and sponges -Lives among its arms, to maintain protection from predators Purple Urchin -Known by the scientific name "Strongylocentrotus purpuratus" -Inhabitant of the underwater kelp forests along the Pacific coast of North America -8-10cm in length -Purple urchin often used in biomedical research Giant California Sea Cucumber -Spikes provide grip on ocean floor -Scientific name: "Stichopus californicus" -Located on North Americas Pacific coast -One of largest sea cucumbers in region -Fleshy spiked species is fished as a local delicacy
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