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Primates Presentation

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by

Misa Fukui

on 27 September 2014

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Transcript of Primates Presentation

CHAPTER 7 The Primates John
Leslie
Misa
Jordan
Sydney
Courtney Why We Study Primates Today's Discussion: Primates: Us and Them What is a Primate? Anatomical Traits
Classification of Primates
New vs. Old World Primates, family Hominoidea
Chimps, Gorillas, Bonobos
Primate Ecology/Communities 4,000 mammals
All primates are placental
Kingdom: Animalia, Phylum: Chordata, Class: Mammalia, Infraclass: Eutheria, Superorder: Euarchontoglires, Order: Primate
About 250 species of nonhuman primates (2 ounces to 450lbs
General traits: grasping hands, stereoscopic vision, proportionally large brain, learned behavior Traits Anatomical Traits Behavioral Traits Life History Traits Anatomical Traits Life History Traits Behavioral Traits Generalized Body Plan
Grasping hands (Opposable Thumbs & Big Toes)
Nails instead of Claws
Eyes with Stereoscopic Vision
Generalized Teeth
Petrosal Bulla Single Offspring
Large Brains
Extended Ontogeny Activity Patterns
Diurnal
Vision and Color
Social Adaptation and Variation Different Primate Types Strepsirhini Haplorhini Prosimian Anthropoid "Lower Primates"
Strepsirhines share common traits
Olfaction reliance
Nocturnality
No social behavior "Higher primates"
Haplorhines share common traits
Vision reliance
Fused jaw
Diurnal
Cognition
Social complexity Tarsier Southeast Asia rain forests
Nocturnal
Live in pairs
Carnivorous (small lizards, frogs, insects) Haplorhine primate (both anthropid and prosimian traits) Lemurs Strepsirhines Madagascar
No gene flow from Africa
Lacked natural predators
Hunted and extinct Lorises Strepsirhine Africa and Asia Galago Strepsirhine African forests New World Monkeys Haplorhines Tropical/Subtropical Region
Small body size
3 premolar teeth
Arboreality
Prehensile tail Old World Monkeys Haplorhines Africa, Asia, Middle East
Infraorder Catarrhini
Ischial Callosities
Bilophodont Molars
Size
Sexual Dimorphism Murqui Haplorhine Colobine Haplorhine Haplorhines Hominoids Pongids
Great apes
Lack tails
Quadrapedalism Hylobatids
Lesser apes Hominiods
Increased brain volume
Extended ontogeny
Increased complexity of social interactions
Large body size Tool technologies, lethal aggression, cognitive development New World Monkey Old World Monkey Gibbon Haplorhine South East Asia Orangutan Haplorhine Indonesia Gorillas Haplorhine Largest Primate
Extraordinarily diverse genetically
Extremely sexually dimorphic
Live in cohesive groups
Eat fruit and fibrous leaves
Have been observed using tools Lowland & mountain forests Chimpanzee Haplorhine Suitable areas in equatorial Africa Closest living relatives (to humans)
Primitive culture
10-15% larger male body size
Fission-fusion mating
Community occupies a territory which the males defend
Males-highly social
Highly diverse diet Chimpanzees (cont.) Bonobos Haplorhine South of Congo River in Africa Pygmy Chimpanzees
More modest sexual dimorphism
Live in larger parties than chimpanzees
Males remain in community
Females leave after maturity
Females create strong bonds
Female dominant society
Closest sexual behavior to humans Primate Ecology Territories and Ranges Predators Diets Interrelated Disperse seeds and acts as pollinators
Environment provides the template on which natural selection molds behavior
Calories burned must match calories consumed and intake of nutrition Leaves Trees evolved to protect their leaves
Leaves provide nutrition for the tree
Protect with spines, hairs, or bristles Fruits Develop bright color, sweet smell, and soft texture to show it is nutritious
Trees want fruit to be attractive so their seeds are spread Home range: Spatial area inhabited by primate group
Territory: defended against other members of the same species
Resources: food, water, mates, shelter Primates evolved to coexist with each other in the same space
Niche separation: when food is scarce, one species may find food high in the trees while another would find food on the ground Smaller primates are more vulnerable
Responses to predators:
Alarm calls (vary depending on the predator)
Move toward larger monkey species A World Map of Living Nonhuman Primates End The Questions? Strepsirhine Primates Haplorhine Primates Current Event What We Discussed Conclusion Why We Study Primates Primate Order
Strepsirhines/Haplorhines
Prosimians/Anthropoids
Family Hominoidea
Traits
Ecology Long arms with suspensory shoulders
Elongated fingers
Shortened thumbs
Highly frugivorous High-energy diet: brachiating and singing
Very vocal from morning to night (whooping)
Declaration of territorial boundaries
Mated pairs sing duets Kloss' Gibbon of Mentawai Islands: 10lbs-25lbs Males: 200lbs more than 2x adult females
Females and dependent offspring defend their territories from other females
Males maintain control
Sexual selection for Bimatuism Mystery Macaque of Tampa Bay, FL Primates are our closest (living) evolutionary relatives
They are fascinating animals, many of whom are close to extinct.
And... They're cute! Survived for almost four years in residential Tampa Bay neighborhoods, until October 2012.
Was a Rhesus Macaque, a species that comes from Asia, but a tribe of whom live in the wild 100 miles south of Tampa in a Florida habitat preserve.
Used intelligence and cunning to escape authorities and came to symbolize a universal yearning for freedom.
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