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The Civil War Period
Transcript of The Civil War Period
CA is Free State South Gets:
Pop. Sov. in UT & NM North Gets:
End of Slave Trade in DC South Gets:
Tough New Fugitive Slave Law Kansas-Nebraska Act Bleeding Kansas Harriet Beecher Stowe Republican Party
Whigs Free Soilers
Know-Nothings Conscience Whigs vs. Dred Scott v. Sandford Decision
1. Persons of African descent cannot be, nor were ever intended to be, citizens & therefore have no standing in court.
2. Congress cannot ban slavery in the territories = Missouri Compromise is unconstitutional.
3. Due Process Clause of the Fifth Amendment prohibits the federal government from freeing slaves brought into federal territories. Springfield, IL
June 16, 1858
"We are now far into the fifth year, since a policy was initiated, with the avowed object, and confident promise, of putting an end to slavery agitation.
Under the operation of that policy, that agitation has not only, not ceased, but has constantly augmented.
In my opinion, it will not cease, until a crisis shall have been reached, and passed.
"A house divided against itself cannot stand."
I believe this government cannot endure, permanently half slave and half free.
I do not expect the Union to be dissolved -- I do not expect the house to fall -- but I do expect it will cease to be divided.
It will become all one thing or all the other.
Either the opponents of slavery, will arrest the further spread of it, and place it where the public mind shall rest in the belief that it is in the course of ultimate extinction; or its advocates will push it forward, till it shall become alike lawful in all the States, old as well as new -- North as well as South." Freeport Doctrine
August 27, 1858
"The next question propounded to me by Mr. Lincoln is, can the people of a Territory in any lawful way, against the wishes of any citizen of the United States, exclude slavery from their limits prior to the formation of a State Constitution? I answer emphatically, as Mr. Lincoln has heard me answer a hundred times from every stump in Illinois, that in my opinion the people of a Territory can, by lawful means, exclude slavery from their limits prior to the formation of a State Constitution. It matters not what way the Supreme Court may hereafter decide as to the abstract question whether slavery may or may not go into a Territory under the Constitution, the people have the lawful means to introduce it or exclude it as they please, for the reason that slavery cannot exist a day or an hour anywhere, unless it is supported by local police regulations. " Lincoln's First Inaugural Address There needs to be no bloodshed or violence; and their shall be none unless it be forced upon the national authority... Plainly, the central idea of secession is the essence of anarchy... My countrymen, one and all, think calmly upon this whole subject... We are not enemies but friends. We must not be enemies. Though passion may have strained, it must not break our bonds of affection. The mystic chords of memory, stretching from every battlefield and patriot grave to every living heart and hearthstone all over this broad land, will yet swell the chorus of the Union, when again touched, as surely they will be, by the better angels of our nature I hold that, in contemplation of universal law and of the Constitution, the Union of these states is perpetual. Perpetuity is implied, if not expressed, in the fundamental law of all national governments... If the United States be not a government proper, but an association of States in the nature of a contract merely, can it, as a contract be peaceable unmade by less than all parties who made it?... I declare that I have no purpose, directly or indirectly, to interfere with the institution of slavery in the states where it exists. I believe I have no lawful right to do so, and I have no inclination to do so... Deep South Secedes 1861 1865 1863 Eastern Front 1st Battle of Bull Run July 21, 1862
First Major Battle of the War – Realization on both sides this was going to be a long bloody war
(Ft. Sumter really didn’t give us this impression)
Gen. McDowell (Union) marches towards Richmond (think Anaconda)
Confederates attack and win
Hero – Thomas J. Jackson
(Earned the Nickname – Stonewall) 1861 1865 1863 Fort Sumter
April 12, 1961
Beginning of the Civil War
Confederate Victory Robert E. Lee
Originally tasked with overall command of Confederate forces from Richmond, after Battle of Seven Pines, June 1, 1862, commander of Army of Northern VA (main confederate fighting force), Johnston was wounded & Lee was put in charge on the field
Some call this the turning point of the war
Lee was able to stop McCellan at Pennisula Campaign Monitor & Merrimack
March 9, 1862
Iron Clad Naval Battle
Blockade at Stake
Neither side wins
(North are moral victors) 1862 2nd Bull Run - Manassas
August - 1862
Robert E. Lee
Union – Pope (He sucks and gets replaced by McClellan)
Another Confederate Win in the East September 1862
FINALLY A UNION VICTORY IN VIRGINIA!
First major victory on Eastern Front for the Union
LEE AND MCCLELLAN (North)
BLOODIEST SINGLE-DAY BATTLE OF WAR AND US MILITARY HISTORY
Confederacy loses chance at European alliance
McClellan has a case of the slows
(Does not pursue Lee and capture his troops.)
Lincoln has his victory so he can deliver the Emancipation Proclamation Antietam Fredericksburg
Union Loses Again
Fredericksburg – Northern Virginia
Confederacy – “Time to go on the offense”
Think about their advantages: Homefield
Think about their purposes: Defend their freedom Chancellorsville
Lee’s Greatest Victory - Confederacy
Yet Confederates greatest lost…
Stonewall Jackson mortally wounded by own men while walking through woods at night – Huge Loss for Confederacy Gettysburg
July 1-4, 1863
Gen. Robert E. Lee concentrated his full strength against Maj. Gen. George G. Meade’s Army of the Potomac (North)
Major Union Victory
Pickett’s Charge – Huge Confederate Losses, attempted to attack a well defended position uphill
The Confederacy will always be on the defense, retreating from this battle on
3 Days - Bloodiest of all the battles, 50,000 casualties Four score... 1864 Grant is the new Head General of the Union Army attacking the Capital at Richmond
Throw more bodies at them, you will win!
Cold Harbor – 7,000 soldiers dead in 20 minutes
Union lost 2x the troops as Confederacy
“What are men, but chickens?” – Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna
Union Victories, but at what cost? Wilderness Campaign Overland Campaign Richmond Petersburg June 1864 - May 1865 April 1865 Just South of Richmond
Confederacy surrenders to Union
Agreement: Confederate Troops would still be fed, allowed to keep horses, not tried for treason
“I felt…sad and depressed at the downfall of a foe who had fought so long and valiantly, and had suffered so much for a cause, though that cause was, I believe, one of the worst for which a people ever fought.”
- Ulysses S. Grant Appomattox Courthouse April 12, 1865 WESTERN FRONT 1864 David Farragut, Rear Admiral of Navy
Capture of New Orleans was esstential to
follow through with Anaconda Plan
Strategic economic center of South & Midwest Battle of NO May 18, 1862 Vicksburg May 18-July 4, 1865 Back to the WEST
***Grant finished the job in the West***
Captured the last major Confederate fort on the Mississippi River
Confederacy split in Half
Grant become General-in-Chief of Union Army Sherman's March to the Sea Won, but at what cost...
3 million fought
600,000 died A country
reconnected But not united. Lincoln Get's Relected
Lincoln's Second Inagural