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Mark's Gospel revision
Transcript of Mark's Gospel revision
And one more thing...
Subject 6: Disciplship
Background to Mark's Gospel
In this topic, candidates should show understanding of the nature and purpose of Mark’s Gospel, how and why it might have been written, and the significance of all this for Christians who read it today.
the writing of the gospel
traditional view of Mark writing in Rome
possible sources behind Mark’s Gospel
possible reasons why Mark’s Gospel was written.
its nature and purpose
significance of the term ‘gospel’ as good news
Mark’s Gospel as good news for persecuted Christians in the 1st and 21st centuries
the extent to which Mark’s Gospel has continuing authority and relevance for Christians today.
Who, When and Where?
Why was Mark written?
Relevance for Christians
In this topic, candidates should show understanding of key narratives presented by Mark as ‘watershed’ events in the ministry of Jesus, and of their significance for Jesus, his disciples and Christians.
the baptism and temptation: 1 • 9–13
Caesarea Philippi: 8 • 27–33
the transfiguration: 9 • 2–8
Jesus' Suffering Death and Resurrection
In this topic, candidates should show understanding of the significance of Jesus’ passion, death and resurrection, for Jesus, those personally involved at the time and for Christians. They should also show understanding of the debate relating to the ending of Mark’s Gospel at 16 8.
the entry into Jerusalem: 11 • 1–11
the anointing at Bethany: 14 • 1–11
the Last Supper: 14 • 12–25
Jesus in Gethsemane: 14 • 32–52
the trials before the Jewish council and
• Pilate: 14 53–65; 15 1–20
the crucifixion and burial: 15 • 21–47
the empty tomb: 16 • 1–8
the resurrection appearances: 16 • 9–20
(cc) image by nuonsolarteam on Flickr
When, Where and How long?
Author - Mark - Peter's Interpreter
Did not follow Jesus
Mysterious naked man in Gethsemane
Sources for Mark?
We think Mark was written in 70 CE - destruction of Jerusalem.
1St Rome - racially/culturally diverse. Many converts to Christianity. may people who were hiding from the authorities. More gentile than Jewish christians.
To show Jesus' Humanity - shows anger? fear?authority?
The show the importance of Jesus' death and resurrection
Show the importance of discipleship e.g.?
Needed to be written as eyewitnesses to Jesus were dying
Threat of heresy
Peter - eyewitness
Personal experience - Garden of Gethssemane
Collection of written teachings
How reliable were Mark's sources?
Ist Century Christians
Modern Day christians
1st C Christians were comforted (calming of the storm)
Gospel ends with hope of eternal life
Key theme of forgiveness
For modern Christians, those suffering persecution because of their faith can be comforted.
Despite many moderns barriers to faith(?) They may look to the actions of Jesus for help
e.g. Oscar Romero
Calming of the Storm
How the Gospel is introduced
This is the Good News about Jesus Christ, the Son of God.[
Jesus Calms a Storm(; )
35 On the evening of that same day Jesus said to his disciples,
Let us go across to the other side of the lake.36 So they left the crowd; the disciples got into the boat in which Jesus was already sitting, and they took him with them. Other boats were there too.37 Suddenly a strong wind blew up, and the waves began to spill over into the boat, so that it was about to fill with water.38 Jesus was in the back of the boat, sleeping with his head on a pillow. The disciples woke him up and said,
Teacher, don't you care that we are about to die?
39 Jesus stood up and commanded the wind,
Be quiet! and he said to the waves,
Be still! The wind died down, and there was a great calm.40 Then Jesus said to his disciples,
Why are you frightened? Do you still have no faith?
41 But they were terribly afraid and began to say to one another,
Who is this man? Even the wind and the waves obey him!
Political background to Jesus Ministry
Palestine was Roman name for Israel, the land of the Jews. taken over in 63BCE and ruled by Herod's sons and Pontius Pilate during Jesus' time. (Refer to your own map).
Much civil unrest but Jews appeased by Romans
However in reality the Jews were not free and had no power
Religious and Political Groups
Sadducees - Priests concerned with the temple and worship. Very Conservative. Full belief in the Torah. Did not believe in Life after death ot the idea of a Messiah
Sanhedrin - Supreme council of the Jews consisting of Sadducees. High priest appointed by Romans. Oversaw running of the temple and court of law. However, no power to put people to death, had to refer to the emperor. They had to be seen to support the empire
Pharisees - Helped to run synagogues. Forward thinking and highly respected. KOG would come when all jews kept the Torah. They awaited the Messiah as the decendant of David. Disliked Romans but oppossed violence.
Scribes - doctors of the law. Experts in thr Torah.
Zealots - political group opposing the Romans. Messiah was to be a Warrior figure. Extremists
Herodians - supporters of the Romans. Non Jews by birth
27 - 30 CE
Jesus birth not in Mark
No info other than he was from Nazareth
Baptism/Temptation and Transfiguration are Watershed Moments. Many healings and teaching.
Caesarea Phillippi to Jerusalem
Mood of Gospel changes. Only 2 healings. Teaching docusses on his suffering anf discipleship
Last week in Jerusalem
Takes up 1/4 of the Gospel. focus on suffering death and ressurection of Jesus
Jesus' Ministry Timeline
Baptism and Temptation
Baptism and temptation of Jesus
9 Not long afterward Jesus came from Nazareth in the province of Galilee, and was baptized by John in the Jordan.10 As soon as Jesus came up out of the water, he saw heaven opening and the Spirit coming down on him like a dove.11 And a voice came from heaven, You are my own dear Son. I am pleased with you. 12 At once the Spirit made him go into the desert,13 where he stayed forty days, being tempted by Satan. Wild animals were there also, but angels came and helped him.
Symbolism and Meaning of Baptism
Heavens opened - Presence of God
Dove - Holy Spirit decended like a dove. Can be a symbol of peace.
Voice - God not human - Jesus seen as God's son
Turning point in Jesus' life
Indicates Jesus' authority - no need for baptism as free from sin
Chrsitians see baptism as an initiation into the Church - symbol of membership of the KOG
Symbolism and Meaning of Temptation
Driven out - as if an exorcism - v. serious
40 days - OT reference - means a long time
Satan and the Wild Animals - evil in opposition to God. Jesus' faith tested
Angels - messengers of God bringing help
Jesus triumphed over evil. Returned ready to start ministry as felt supported by God
Shows authority of Jesus as SOG. Modern Christians remeber this during LENT to show, like Jesus, dedication to God
Peter's Declaration about Jesus(; )
27 Then Jesus and his disciples went away to the villages near Caesarea Philippi. On the way he asked them, Tell me, who do people say I am?28 Some say that you are John the Baptist, they answered; others say that you are Elijah, while others say that you are one of the prophets, 29 What about you? he asked them. Who do you say I am? Peter answered, You are the Messiah.
30 Then Jesus ordered them, Do not tell anyone about me.
Jesus Speaks about His Suffering and Death(; )
31 Then Jesus began to teach his disciples: The Son of Man must suffer much and be rejected by the elders, the chief priests, and the teachers of the Law. He will be put to death, but three days later he will rise to life.32 He made this very clear to them. So Peter took him aside and began to rebuke him.33 But Jesus turned around, looked at his disciples, and rebuked Peter. Get away from me, Satan, he said. Your thoughts don't come from God but from human nature!
1st time Jesus refered to as Messiah
Refers to himself as SOM
Importance of this event
Watershed Moment - from this point on everything points to Jesus death
Before - ministry was in the public eye, many healings and teaching, positive atmosphere
After - darker atmosphere, Jesus did not want people to know who he was, focus on teaching disciples,
Diciples at this point di not yet understand Jesus' mission
Jesus' suffering has to happen and has a purpose
Helps Christians understand their own suffering
In this topic, candidates should show understanding of Mark’s portrayal of Jesus in his account of Jesus’ life and through his use of certain titles, together with the significance of this for Christians in their assessment of Jesus.
Jesus the teacher and miracle worker;•
titles for Jesus:•Christ/Messiah, Son of Man, Son of God.
the baptism of Jesus: 1 9–11
the paralysed man: 2 1–12
the feeding of the 5000: 6 30–44
Caesarea Philippi: 8 27–33
Subject 4: The Person Of Jesus
Mark focusses on Jesus as a Teacher and Miracle Worker
Often refered to as teacher or rabbi
Taught with Authority
Used Parables - any e.g.?
Why did he use parables?
Jesus' Final Week in Jerusalem
Came to celebrate passover with the disciples
Pilgrims from all over the empire
Exciting but tense as Jews anticipated the coming of the Messiah
Romans would have kept a watchful eye
Jesus and disciples came from Jericho with other pilgrims for safety
The entry into the city marks the start of the final sextion of Mark's Gospel
The Triumphant Entry into Jerusalem
1 As they approached Jerusalem, near the towns of Bethphage and Bethany, they came to the Mount of Olives. Jesus sent two of his disciples on ahead2 with these instructions: Go to the village there ahead of you. As soon as you get there, you will find a colt tied up that has never been ridden. Untie it and bring it here.3 And if someone asks you why you are doing that, say that the Master[a] needs it and will send it back at once.4 So they went and found a colt out in the street, tied to the door of a house. As they were untying it,5 some of the bystanders asked them, What are you doing, untying that colt? 6 They answered just as Jesus had told them, and the crowd let them go.7 They brought the colt to Jesus, threw their cloaks over the animal, and Jesus got on.8 Many people spread their cloaks on the road, while others cut branches in the field and spread them on the road.9 The people who were in front and those who followed behind began to shout, Praise God! God bless him who comes in the name of the Lord!10 God bless the coming kingdom of King David, our father! Praise be to God!
11 Jesus entered Jerusalem, went into the Temple, and looked around at everything. But since it was already late in the day, he went out to Bethany with the twelve disciples.
Why is it called the 'triumphant entry'?
Mark may have been an eyewitness
Colt - young donkey
Impression of celebration
Palm Cross helps Christians remember this event
Only kings rode into the city as a sign of victory
Jesus making a statement about his identity - messiah
Humble - colt not horse
Laying out palms - respect for authority
Pilgrims - Hosanna means save us, reference to King David - hoping to be freed
What happens in churches on Palm Sunday?Why do you think it is an important day for Christians?
The Annointing and Arrangements for Betrayal
The Sanhedrins Dilemma 14:1-2
The Annointing at Bethany 14:3-9
Arrangements for Betrayal 14:10-11
The Plot against Jesus
1 It was now two days before the Festival of Passover and Unleavened Bread. The chief priests and the teachers of the Law were looking for a way to arrest Jesus secretly and put him to death.2 We must not do it during the festival, they said, or the people might riot.
Jesus Is Anointed at Bethany
3 Jesus was in Bethany at the house of Simon, a man who had suffered from a dreaded skin disease. While Jesus was eating, a woman came in with an alabaster jar full of a very expensive perfume made of pure nard. She broke the jar and poured the perfume on Jesus' head.4 Some of the people there became angry and said to one another, What was the use of wasting the perfume?5 It could have been sold for more than three hundred silver coins[a] and the money given to the poor! And they criticized her harshly.6 But Jesus said, Leave her alone! Why are you bothering her? She has done a fine and beautiful thing for me.7 You will always have poor people with you, and any time you want to, you can help them. But you will not always have me.8 She did what she could; she poured perfume on my body to prepare it ahead of time for burial.9 Now, I assure you that wherever the gospel is preached all over the world, what she has done will be told in memory of her.
Judas Agrees to Betray Jesus
10 Then Judas Iscariot, one of the twelve disciples, went off to the chief priests in order to betray Jesus to them.11 They were pleased to hear what he had to say, and promised to give him money. So Judas started looking for a good chance to hand Jesus over to them.
Religious Authorities determined to destroy Jesus
Why not during the feast?
Annointing at Bethany
Womens sudden appearance would hav been shocking
Customary to annoint guests at a meal - not by women and not such expensive oil
Jesus' response was important because:
Understood woman's motiation and praised her generosity
Preperation for his burial
Her action would always be remembered
OT times Kings were annointed as a sign they had been chosen by God. Messiah means Annointed One
Who was Judas?
Not much is known
Iscariot not a surname - may have refered to the town he was from
He may have been a Zealot
Expected Jesus to lead a rebellion
Freely chosen - helped to fulfill Jesus Mission
You can use this content on Judas to answer many questions
E.G. of how flawed disciples were
Caused Jesus' death more than/as well as Pilate/religious authorities
Gospel of Mark
The Lord’s Supper/Eucharist
The Lord’s Supper (Mark 14:12-26)
12 On the first day of the Festival of Unleavened Bread, when it was customary to sacrifice the Passover lamb, Jesus’ disciples asked him, “Where do you want us to go and make preparations for you to eat the Passover?” 13 So he sent two of his disciples, telling them, “Go into the city, and a man carrying a jar of water will meet you. Follow him. 14 Say to the owner of the house he enters, ‘The Teacher asks: Where is my guest room, where I may eat the Passover with my disciples?’ 15 He will show you a large room upstairs, furnished and ready. Make preparations for us there.”
16 The disciples left, went into the city and found things just as Jesus had told them. So they prepared the Passover.
17 When evening came, Jesus arrived with the Twelve. 18 While they were reclining at the table eating, he said, “Truly I tell you, one of you will betray me—one who is eating with me.”
19 They were saddened, and one by one they said to him, “Surely you don’t mean me?”
20 “It is one of the Twelve,” he replied, “one who dips bread into the bowl with me. 21 The Son of Man will go just as it is written about him. But woe to that man who betrays the Son of Man! It would be better for him if he had not been born.”
22 While they were eating, Jesus took bread, and when he had given thanks, he broke it and gave it to his disciples, saying, “Take it; this is my body.”
23 Then he took a cup, and when he had given thanks, he gave it to them, and they all drank from it.
24 “This is my blood of the[a] covenant, which is poured out for many,” he said to them. 25 “Truly I tell you, I will not drink again from the fruit of the vine until that day when I drink it new in the kingdom of God.” 26 When they had sung a hymn, they went out to the Mount of Olives.
Footnotes: Mark 14:24 Some manuscripts the new
Remember this Bible passage!
Context and importance #1
Mark says the last supper was the Passover meal. This is a really important festival in Judaism, where Jews give thanks to God for saving them from slavery when he led them out of Egypt. It also celebrates that God did not let the angel of death claim them when the first sons of the Egyptians were killed.
The important thing, however, is not the meal itself but the meaning of the Last Supper.
The arrangements must have been made by Jesus himself or some friends in Jerusalem. A man carrying a water jar would be a most unusual sight, since this was normally done by women. It would seem to be a sort of prearranged secret sign that Peter and John would know about.
The secrecy surrounding the meeting was probably because Jesus did not want any interruptions to the supper. It would also be important that Judas should not have known about it otherwise he might have betrayed Jesus during the meal itself and Jesus may have felt it was an important way of saying goodbye and needed to go to completion.
The betrayer is predicted in verses 17-21. It seems that Jesus had seen the signs and knew that Judas was the weakest link in the group. It’s important here that the disciples don’t push Jesus to say who it is, rather they look inside themselves to question whether it is them. They hope they haven’t betrayed Jesus in some way without realising. Only Judas knows that he has definitely done something wrong.
Sum this up in one sentence
Context and importance #2
The Last Supper was important as it was the last thing Jesus would do in his ministry; everything else was building up to this.
He would soon be executed. How could he teach the disciples one last, great lesson that would live on after his death?
He did a very simple thing; he took the bread and broke it, saying “This is my body”, reflecting that his body would also be broken (by the torture and pain of his death on the crucifix).
He then poured the wine, “this is my blood of the covenant” (see next slide), reflecting that his blood would be spilt, but it would be spilt to bring to earth a new relationship between God and humans.
In St. Paul’s first letter to the Corinthians, Paul states that Jesus also says “do this in memory of me”, suggesting we should also break bread and pour wine as a way of remembering Jesus. This is how the Eucharist, or Holy Communion, often called ‘mass’ has come about.
Context and Importance #3
From verse 24:
In the old covenant, the Jewish people had to obey God’s laws (Exodus 24:3-8) and in exchange God would protect Abraham’s descendants. But it could be argued that the Jewish people had spoilt that agreement with God, maybe by becoming obsessed with the ‘extra rules’ (as the Pharisees had done) or because at various points in history the Jewish people had turned away from God and worshipped idols such as Baal.
In the new covenant men would want to obey God because of his love for them. The blood of an animal (a ram sacrificed instead of Abraham’s son, Isaac) ‘signed’ the old agreement. When Jesus gave his life for men, he would have ‘signed’ the new agreement with his own blood. It was ‘for many’. The old agreement had been between God and the Jews. The new agreement was for everyone.
The centrality to Christian worship of the Eucharist
Revise the Eucharist
What happens during the Eucharist?
What is the meaning of the drinking of the wine and the eating of the bread?
What is transubstantiation? This is what Roman Catholics believe happens to the bread and wine when it is consumed
Why is it also called ‘Holy Communion’?
What has to happen in order for a person to be able to receive Holy Communion?
Subject 5 Jesus' Relationship with Others
In this topic, candidates should show understanding of reasons for Jesus’ disputes with the Jewish authorities, and of the significance of the conflict stories for Christian attitudes to religious and secular authority and the issue of violent and non-violent protest. They should also show understanding of the significance of Jesus’ attitudes to the outcast for Christians today in relation to issues of justice, equality, prejudice and discrimination. Candidates should consider both the part played by faith in the healings of Jesus and modern debate relating to miracles and science.
Jesus and the Jewish authorities;•
Jesus and the outcast;•
Jesus and the sick;•
the man with leprosy: 1 40–44
the call of Levi and eating with sinners: 2 13–17
the man with the paralysed (withered) hand: 3 1–6
Jairus’ daughter and the woman with a haemorrhage: 5 21–43
the Greek woman’s daughter: 7 24–30
blind Bartimaeus: 10 46–52
the incident in the Temple court: 11 15–18
payment of taxes to Caesar: 12 13–17
In this topic, candidates should understand how Mark’s portrayal of the disciples (particularly Peter) relates to the Twelve as disciples, leaders and role models, and assess the influence and function of modern leaders and celebrities as role models for Christians. They should understand the significance for Christians living in a materialist and secular world, of Jesus’ teaching on the nature of the Kingdom of God and his expectations of his disciples. They should also demonstrate awareness of modern examples of self-sacrifice and service.
the kingdom of God and the demands of • discipleship;
the significance of Jesus’ teaching on the • kingdom of God;
the significance of Jesus’ teaching on • discipleship for Christians, including modern examples of self-sacrifice and service;
the impact on Christians of attitudes to wealth • and possessions in today’s society.
the call of the disciples: 1 16–20
parables of the kingdom: 4 3–9, 14–20, 30–32
the mission of the Twelve: 6 7–13
cost of discipleship: 8 34–38
the rich man and wealth: 10 17–31
teaching on service: 10 42–45
the greatest commandments: 12 28–34
the widow at the treasury: 12 41–44
Peter’s promise and denials: 14 26–31, 66–72
the commission: 16 14–18
Jesus in Gethsemane
Jesus Prays in Gethsemane
32 They came to a place called Gethsemane, and Jesus said to his disciples, Sit here while I pray.33 He took Peter, James, and John with him. Distress and anguish came over him,34 and he said to them, The sorrow in my heart is so great that it almost crushes me. Stay here and keep watch.35 He went a little farther on, threw himself on the ground, and prayed that, if possible, he might not have to go through that time of suffering.36 Father, he prayed, my Father! All things are possible for you. Take this cup of suffering away from me. Yet not what I want, but what you want. 37 Then he returned and found the three disciples asleep. He said to Peter, Simon, are you asleep? Weren't you able to stay awake for even one hour?38 And he said to them, Keep watch, and pray that you will not fall into temptation. The spirit is willing, but the flesh is weak. 39 He went away once more and prayed, saying the same words.40 Then he came back to the disciples and found them asleep; they could not keep their eyes open. And they did not know what to say to him.41 When he came back the third time, he said to them, Are you still sleeping and resting? Enough! The hour has come! Look, the Son of Man is now being handed over to the power of sinners.42 Get up, let us go. Look, here is the man who is betraying me!
Meaning, Significance and Importance
Gethsemane - olive garden overlooking Jerusalem
Judas was not with them
Jesus needed the support of the disciples
Cup - metaphor for suffering. Jesus begged God(abba-aramaic). Jesus was afraid but was willing to do God's will. Disciples could not physically stay awake. He may have been able to see Judas coming
Relevant for Christians?
Shows humanity of Jesus which Christians can reate to. He was fearful f his death/crucifixion. Inspirational in his obedience to God. Abba is a word used by a trusting child, like saying Daddy. Story a source of encouragement for 1st C Christians facing persecution but also to modern Christians. Many can also relate tot he diciples, they could not live up to their promises but Jesus understood. Helps Christians not to despair if their faith fails them
The Arrest of Jesus(14:43-52 )
43 Jesus was still speaking when Judas, one of the twelve disciples, arrived. With him was a crowd armed with swords and clubs and sent by the chief priests, the teachers of the Law, and the elders.44 The traitor had given the crowd a signal: The man I kiss is the one you want. Arrest him and take him away under guard.45 As soon as Judas arrived, he went up to Jesus and said, Teacher! and kissed him.46 So they arrested Jesus and held him tight.47 But one of those standing there drew his sword and struck at the High Priest's slave, cutting off his ear.48 Then Jesus spoke up and said to them, Did you have to come with swords and clubs to capture me, as though I were an outlaw?49 Day after day I was with you teaching in the Temple, and you did not arrest me. But the Scriptures must come true.50 Then all the disciples left him and ran away.51 A certain young man, dressed only in a linen cloth, was following Jesus. They tried to arrest him,52 but he ran away naked, leaving the cloth behind.
Arrest is fulfillment of OT prophesy. Judas' kiss would hve been a normal way to great a rabbi but on this occassion it identified Jesus to the guards. ALthough a scuffle broke out Jesus wanted calm. They could have arrested him much earlier but needed secrecy to avoid public outcry. disciples fled as well as the naked man thought to be Mark
You can use these accounts to help you answer questions on Discipleship and The Person of Jesus
Jesus before the Council(14:53-65)
53 Then Jesus was taken to the High Priest's house, where all the chief priests, the elders, and the teachers of the Law were gathering.54 Peter followed from a distance and went into the courtyard of the High Priest's house. There he sat down with the guards, keeping himself warm by the fire.55 The chief priests and the whole Council tried to find some evidence against Jesus in order to put him to death, but they could not find any.56 Many witnesses told lies against Jesus, but their stories did not agree.57 Then some men stood up and told this lie against Jesus:58
We heard him say, I will tear down this Temple which men have made, and after three days I will build one that is not made by men.59 Not even they, however, could make their stories agree.60 The High Priest stood up in front of them all and questioned Jesus,
Have you no answer to the accusation they bring against you?61 But Jesus kept quiet and would not say a word. Again the High Priest questioned him, Are you the Messiah, the Son of the Blessed God?62 I am, answered Jesus,
and you will all see the Son of Man seated at the right side of the Almighty and coming with the clouds of heaven!63 The High Priest tore his robes and said, We don't need any more witnesses!64 You heard his blasphemy. What is your decision? They all voted against him: he was guilty and should be put to death.65 Some of them began to spit on Jesus, and they blindfolded him and hit him.
Guess who hit you! they said. And the guards took him and slapped him.
Rules Governing Sanhedrin Trials
not held at night or eve of a Jewish feast day,final verdict must not be given until a day had passed to encourage mercy,trial should be held in the Hall of Hewn Stone,begin with finding the accused innocent, valid evidence = 2 witness testimony agreed,High Priest should not ask direct questions,conviction for blasphemy = God’s personal name (Exodus3:14 I am who I am),Jewish: stoning to death, Roman: crucifixion
Jews were responsible for Jesus death as they broke all the rules, they were desperate to be rid of Jesus
Jesus insulting as he told false Messianic claims but he was foreshadowing his death and resurrection, as Jesus is the temple and will die then rise up in 3 days
Jesus called himself the Son of Man
Jesus openly admits he is the Christ and doesn’t try to make witnesses silent, however he avoided direct reference to God
tearing of the robes symbolizes the end of the trial and his grief/horror at the blasphemy
Jesus before Pilate(15:1-20
1 Early in the morning the chief priests met hurriedly with the elders, the teachers of the Law, and the whole Council, and made their plans. They put Jesus in chains, led him away, and handed him over to Pilate.2 Pilate questioned him,
Are you the king of the Jews? Jesus answered, So you say.3 The chief priests were accusing Jesus of many things,4 so Pilate questioned him again,
Aren't you going to answer? Listen to all their accusations!5 Again Jesus refused to say a word, and Pilate was amazed.
Jesus Is Sentenced to Death(; ; )
6 At every Passover Festival Pilate was in the habit of setting free any one prisoner the people asked for.7 At that time a man named Barabbas was in prison with the rebels who had committed murder in the riot.8 When the crowd gathered and began to ask Pilate for the usual favor,9 he asked them, Do you want me to set free for you the king of the Jews?10 He knew very well that the chief priests had handed Jesus over to him because they were jealous.11 But the chief priests stirred up the crowd to ask, instead, that Pilate set Barabbas free for them.12 Pilate spoke again to the crowd, What, then, do you want me to do with the one you call the king of the Jews?13 They shouted back, Crucify him!14
But what crime has he committed? Pilate asked. They shouted all the louder,
Crucify him!15 Pilate wanted to please the crowd, so he set Barabbas free for them. Then he had Jesus whipped and handed him over to be crucified.
The Soldiers Make Fun of Jesus(; , )
16 The soldiers took Jesus inside to the courtyard of the governor's palace and called together the rest of the company.17 They put a purple robe on Jesus, made a crown out of thorny branches, and put it on his head.18 Then they began to salute him: Long live the King of the Jews!19 They beat him over the head with a stick, spat on him, fell on their knees, and bowed down to him.20 When they had finished making fun of him, they took off the purple robe and put his own clothes back on him. Then they led him out to crucify him.
Jesus had to face a trial in front of the Romans who were in charge, to decide his punishment
it was a tradition on the Passover that one Jewish prisoner was pardoned, this allowed Romans to keep Jews on their side
Jesus was convicted of blasphemy a religious offence but it had to be political to gain the attention of Pilate, the idea of a Messiah referring to a political figure was a King
claiming to be a King was treason which the Roman penalty was crucifixion
Jesus gave a broad answer indicating he was their King in a religious but not political sense
Pilate wants to release Jesus as he knows that he is not guilty of any crime
Pilate saw that the situation could get out of control so to keep peace he granted their request
Jesus went through all types of suffering including physical and emotional
Jesus Is Crucified(; ; )
21 On the way they met a man named Simon, who was coming into the city from the country, and the soldiers forced him to carry Jesus' cross. (Simon was from Cyrene and was the father of Alexander and Rufus.)22 They took Jesus to a place called Golgotha, which means The Place of the Skull.23 There they tried to give him wine mixed with a drug called myrrh, but Jesus would not drink it.24 Then they crucified him and divided his clothes among themselves, throwing dice to see who would get which piece of clothing.25 It was nine o'clock in the morning when they crucified him.26 The notice of the accusation against him said:
The King of the Jews.27 They also crucified two bandits with Jesus, one on his right and the other on his left.[a]
29 People passing by shook their heads and hurled insults at Jesus: Aha! You were going to tear down the Temple and build it back up in three days!30 Now come down from the cross and save yourself 31 In the same way the chief priests and the teachers of the Law made fun of Jesus, saying to one another, He saved others, but he cannot save himself32 Let us see the Messiah, the king of Israel, come down from the cross now, and we will believe in him!And the two who were crucified with Jesus insulted him also.
The Death of Jesus(; ; )
33 At noon the whole country was covered with darkness, which lasted for three hours.34 At three o'clock Jesus cried out with a loud shout, Eloi, Eloi, lema sabachthani?which means, My God, my God, why did you abandon me?35 Some of the people there heard him and said, Listen, he is calling for Elijah!36 One of them ran up with a sponge, soaked it in cheap wine, and put it on the end of a stick. Then he held it up to Jesus' lips and said, Wait! Let us see if Elijah is coming to bring him down from the cross! 37 With a loud cry Jesus died.
38 The curtain hanging in the Temple was torn in two, from top to bottom.39 The army officer who was standing there in front of the cross saw how Jesus had died.This man was really the Son of God! he said.
40 Some women were there, looking on from a distance. Among them were Mary Magdalene, Mary the mother of the younger James and of Joseph, and Salome.41 They had followed Jesus while he was in Galilee and had helped him. Many other women who had come to Jerusalem with him were there also.
Roman citizens were not crucified as they were their own people so wanted a quicker, less brutal and embarrassing death
they used crucifixion to show power, to act as a deterrence and to punish in the most extreme way possible
tradition was that criminals carried their cross to their place of execution, Jesus was helped to prolong his death and suffering
he refused drugs as he wanted to suffer naturally in order to fulfill the scriptures
the crowd’s mocking indicates they still don’t understand Jesus is the temple
this shows fully Jesus humanity as he suffers humiliation and pain as the Son of Man
Jesus must have felt alone because his disciples weren't around, his mother was at a distance and he felt as if God his father had abandoned him the darkness shows God’s anger at humanity as we have made a terrible sin crucifying and rejecting the Messiah
they offered Jesus wine to prolong his life to see if his call will be answered
he took on the sin of humanity and experienced the separation that it created between God and humans showing his self sacrificial love
he willing accepted his fate even though it meant he felt cut off from God and set an example for us
tearing of the temple curtain had a symbolic meaning, the curtain separated off the Holy of Holies where only God was present
Jesus death tore down the barrier of sin that cut humanity off from God
indicated the temple will be destroyed (as it was in 70AD by the Romans)
temple is no longer the only place to find God, he is now to be found in Jesus, within everyone
God is now everywhere in the world for everyone
a gentile declared the truth about Jesus which was a clear statement that the good news was for everyone
disciples were nowhere to be seen so it was left to the women to be witnesses showing they were true followers of Jesus and had important roles
Jewish tradition stated that bodies had to be buried as soon as possible, the next day was the Sabbath so Jesus had to be buried on the Friday evening before the Sabbath began as burying someone was considered as work
Joseph was a member of the council (probably the Sanhedrin), he may have been a secret supporter of Jesus or simply a devout Jew horrified at the idea of the body being left hanging over night
Jesus was placed in an empty tomb and rolled a large stone across the entrance, this is important as it adds authenticity to the resurrection
Jesus really died and the check Pilate made shows that his death was a confirmed fact
there was no time to anoint the body
The Resurrection(; ; )
1 After the Sabbath was over, Mary Magdalene, Mary the mother of James, and Salome bought spices to go and anoint the body of Jesus.2 Very early on Sunday morning, at sunrise, they went to the tomb.3-4On the way they said to one another, Who will roll away the stone for us from the entrance to the tomb? (It was a very large stone.) Then they looked up and saw that the stone had already been rolled back.5 So they entered the tomb, where they saw a young man sitting at the right, wearing a white robe—and they were alarmed. 6 Don't be alarmed, he said. I know you are looking for Jesus of Nazareth, who was crucified. He is not here—he has been raised! Look, here is the place where he was placed.7 Now go and give this message to his disciples, including Peter: He is going to Galilee ahead of you; there you will see him, just as he told you.8 So they went out and ran from the tomb, distressed and terrified. They said nothing to anyone, because they were afraid.
AN OLD ENDING TO THE GOSPEL[a]
Jesus Appears to Mary Magdalene(, ; )
[9 After Jesus rose from death early on Sunday, he appeared first to Mary Magdalene, from whom he had driven out seven demons.9 The women went to Peter and his friends and gave them a brief account of all they had been told.10 She went and told his companions. They were mourning and crying;10 After this, Jesus himself sent out through his disciples from the east to the west the sacred and everliving message of eternal salvation.]11 and when they heard her say that Jesus was alive and that she had seen him, they did not believe her.
Jesus Appears to Two Followers()
12 After this, Jesus appeared in a different manner to two of them while they were on their way to the country.13 They returned and told the others, but these would not believe it.
Jesus Appears to the Eleven(; ; ; )
14 Last of all, Jesus appeared to the eleven disciples as they were eating. He scolded them, because they did not have faith and because they were too stubborn to believe those who had seen him alive.15 He said to them, Go throughout the whole world and preach the gospel to all people.16 Whoever believes and is baptized will be saved; whoever does not believe will be condemned.17 Believers will be given the power to perform miracles: they will drive out demons in my name; they will speak in strange tongues;18 if they pick up snakes or drink any poison, they will not be harmed; they will place their hands on sick people, and these will get well.
Jesus Is Taken Up to Heaven(; )
19 After the Lord Jesus had talked with them, he was taken up to heaven and sat at the right side of God.20 The disciples went and preached everywhere, and the Lord worked with them and proved that their preaching was true by the miracles that were performed.]
Mark’s gospel originally ended at verse 8 and verses9-20 was added in the 2nd century
the verse is so abrupt is it thought Mark didn’t intend to end the Gospel in this way as the gospel is good news and to end on verse 8 would end in fear and despair
he could of died before he finished it
the rest could have been destroyed through continual use
this must of occurred very early as nobody wrote it out
other people think this was Marks intention
fear and amazement is how people reacted when God was at work, Jesus calmed the storm and God giving Moses the 10 Commandments
emotions felt by the women is highly appropriate as the reader is left to reflect on the story of Jesus
This is not part of the original text. It was added much later by a different author. It looks as if it may have been compiled from other gospels or similar texts. It is important to know the resurrection appearances which are in this passage and the words of Jesus at the end.
these appearances reinforce the Christian belief that Jesus resurrected from the dead and that through this he opened the gates of heaven
the Ascension showed that Jesus was King
Did It Happen?
Mark was human, capable of making mistakes
rising from the dead is impossible
the author had a purpose
women went to the wrong tomb
empty tomb was a parable making the point that Jesus would never be forgotten
he was unconscious not dead
disciples moved it to honor it, Jews/Romans took it to prevent his memory being honored
wishful thinking to make up for lack of faith
disciples so involved in the lie that they started to believe it
Mark was inspired by God
God’s power overrides the laws of nature
it includes unlikely detail that women were witnesses
women noted where Jesus was buried
empty tomb story is not dramatic
centurion would not have made a mistake
unlikely his body would have been moved, disciples were too afraid and Jews and Romans had no reason too
disciples who lacked faith would not have made the Resurrection up
many died as martyrs, they would not have given up their lives if it was a lie
The death and resurrection of Jesus are the key points in Christian preaching. The most important day in the Christian year is Easter Sunday, when the resurrection is remembered. As Jesus was raised to life on a Sunday Christians made Sunday their holy day.
we worship a living Christ not a crucified martyr, Jesus was brought back to life and this creates a living spiritual presence in our lives
Jesus referred to his future suffering, death and resurrection and these predictions came true
Death Is Not The End
opens the possibility of eternal life with God, death is not to be feared as it is the gateway to a new richer form of life, this comforts those facing death or grieving for loved ones as the separation is not final and those who have died are with God
God did the impossible raising Jesus from the dead indicating his power, nothing is too great for God to achieve and this is comforting/encouraging those in difficulty
Victory Over Evil
life has triumphed over death, good over evil, hope over despair and whatever suffering you go through in life nothing can separate them from God’s love
Resurrection Can Be Lived In The Present
Baptism is a symbol of rebirth as it enables you to live in a new relationship with God, then begin to experience the resurrection life that will be fully theirs after death, this has a big impact on peoples lives
Titles of Jesus
A title can tell us someone's name, social rank , gender and qualification.
Jesus had many names: Son of God, Messiah, Lamb of God, Son of David, Christ, Saviour, Yahweh, Lord, Kind, Son of Man, Shepherd.
The three main ones are Christ Messiah, Son of God and Son of Man.
Son of Man
shows us the human side of Jesus and his relationship with other humans
title comes from the Old Testament and in the Gospels the title is used by Jesus himself
the Son of Man has the power and authority on earth to forgive sin (healing of sins leads to healing of the body)
he will suffer and die as a human
Jesus will rise again and come in glory
the Son of Man must suffer, die as a human and will rise again coming in glory
the Son of Man will appear at the end of time ‘seated at the right hand of the father, coming down from the clouds of heaven’
Son of God
as Son of God, Jesus has a close relationship with his father in heaven
Son of God shows us his divinity (connection with God)
when Mark presents Jesus as Son of God he is showing us that Jesus really is God’s Son
God speaks twice publically declaring his son and God’s approval - When?
it means anointed one
Messiah is the most important title for believers
Christ is the messiah, the messenger, he leads humankind to the kingdom of God
the messiah is described in the Old Testament, Jesus is the PROMISED messiah
Baptism of Jesus
Jesus is shown to be the Son of God.
John the Baptist baptized Jesus in the river Jordan
as he came up out of the water, he saw heaven opening and the Holy Spirit coming down in the form of a dove
a voice came from heaven saying “you are my own dear Son and I am pleased with you”
even though he is the Son of God he is humble enough to ask his cousin to baptize him
John’s foreshadowing of the Messiah became real
God’s voice and comment about his love for Jesus shows his approval and encourages him to start his mission
first time God acknowledges Jesus as his Son
heaven opening showing he is the Son of God
trinity is present
Jesus is shown to be the Messiah
Jesus took Peter, James and John up a high mountain
as they went up Jesus clothes became shining white
the three disciples then saw Elijah and Moses talking with Jesus
Peter asked to make three tents
a cloud appeared “this is my own dear Son, listen to him”
then they only saw Jesus with them
Jesus clothes transform into a pure divine white colour symbolising his divinity and that he is special
the trinity is present for the second time, God commands people to listen to him
it takes place in a high mountain which shows his closeness with God
God shows he adores his son and is proud of what he is doing
Elijah was a great prophet and predicted the Son of God will come and save us, Jesus has fulfilled this prophecy
When Jesus heals the paralysed we see his authority and power he cannot only heal the sick but he has God’s authority to forgive sins. As he is the Son of Man, he was God’s representative and acted with God’s authority. So he had the right to declare that the man’s sins were forgiven.
Jesus shows his human emotions of pity love and care, he admires the mans persistence and faith in him, it is faith that heals him
Jesus openly declares that he is the Son of Man and is not scared of the consequences
he know he will get killed for this in the end but he wants people to know who he is and why he can heal and perform miracles
when Jesus uses the title Son of Man he shows his human venerability, in the end he will be rejected for his healings and good work and will suffer
it reminds us of Jesus selfless love for others as he lived to serve and was prepared to die for us
Feeding of the 5000
Jesus the Teacher
disciples and Jesus had been teaching and healing
they were tired so Jesus shows care telling them to rest
the crowd who wanted to see Jesus persevered, desperate for guidance and to believe, wanted to hear teachings and see miracles
he has pity and respond in a loving caring compassionate way unlike disciples
Mark 6:30-44 - Feeding 5000 Summary
Jesus and the disciples were tired so they went by boat to a quiet place
but lots of people saw them and began to follow
there was a large crowd and Jesus was filled with pity as they were like lost sheep without a Shepherd, so he began to teach them
it was getting late and the disciples said “it is very late, send the people away to buy themselves something to eat”
Jesus answered “you give them something to eat” and they replied “ you want us to go out and spend so much money on bread to feed them?”
Jesus asked “how much bread have you got?” and they told him “ five loaves and two fishes”
Jesus divide the people into groups of hundreds and they sat down
Jesus took the 5 loaves and 2 fish looked up to heaven and gave thanks to God, he broke the loaves and gave them to his disciples to distribute with the two fish
everyone ate and had enough, there was 12 baskets of food left and they had fed 5000 people
Jesus the Miracle Worker
if you follow Jesus you will be rewarded with abundance or wealth (eternal life), always to cared for and have enough
foreshadows what happens at the last supper and what Christians do at Sunday (Eucharist/Holy Communion)
his control and authority over nature
recognises the human needs
Caesarea Philippi(Peter's Declaration
A lot people are confused about Jesus and just see him as a prophet, like those whom have come before. Peter disagrees and states that Jesus is the chosen one from God the Messiah. Jesus doesn’t want them to tell anyone as wanted people to find faith for themselves. Jesus planned everything, therefore didn't want people to kill him before his time. It shows that Jesus is in control and knows what he is doing.
Jesus and his disciples went to Caesarea when he asked “who do people say I am?”
they answered “some say John the Baptist, others say Elijah, while others say you are one of the prophets”
Jesus asked “who do you say I am?”
Peter replied “you are the Messiah” and Jesus told them not to tell anyone
Jesus teaches them and prophesizes about the Son of Man then Peter began to rebuke him
Jesus says “get behind me Satan! you don’t have in mind the things of God but the things of men”
first of the passion predictions, he will suffer, die and rise from the dead
Jesus is declared to be the Messiah and this is a turning point as we start to move to his death and resurrection, what he was sent on earth to do
Peter hasn’t understood that Jesus will suffer and die to be the true Messiah sent by God
Jesus told them not to tell anyone as he wanted to avoid arrest at this time to have more time to spread the word and make more people believe
he wanted to reward those who truly believe him and didn’t want everyone to find out until he was dead
Jesus Heals a Paralyzed Man(; )
1 A few days later Jesus went back to Capernaum, and the news spread that he was at home.2 So many people came together that there was no room left, not even out in front of the door. Jesus was preaching the message to them3 when four men arrived, carrying a paralyzed man to Jesus.4 Because of the crowd, however, they could not get the man to him. So they made a hole in the roof right above the place where Jesus was. When they had made an opening, they let the man down, lying on his mat.5 Seeing how much faith they had, Jesus said to the paralyzed man, My son, your sins are forgiven.6 Some teachers of the Law who were sitting there thought to themselves,7 How does he dare talk like this? This is blasphemy! God is the only one who can forgive sins!8 At once Jesus knew what they were thinking, so he said to them, Why do you think such things?9 Is it easier to say to this paralyzed man, Your sins are forgiven, or to say, Get up, pick up your mat, and walk?10 I will prove to you, then, that the Son of Man has authority on earth to forgive sins. So he said to the paralyzed man,11 I tell you, get up, pick up your mat, and go home!12 While they all watched, the man got up, picked up his mat, and hurried away. They were all completely amazed and praised God, saying,
We have never seen anything like this!