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Montserrat, Soufrière Hills

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Jake Mahr

on 23 April 2015

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Transcript of Montserrat, Soufrière Hills

Montserrat, Soufrière Hills Volcano
Why Is It There?
Tectonics
Soufrière Hills
Lesser Antilles Volcanic Arc
Where Are All The People?
Hazard Zones
What Does It Look Like From Space?
Aerial View
Soufrière Hills Facts:
Stratovolcano
~915 m
Composed of old lava domes
Eruptive History:
Nearly continuous activity since 1995
Dome growth, rock falls, pyroclastic flows, dome collapses and explosive events
Last large eruption before 1995 was likely before its settlement in 1632
Volcanoseismic activity damaged buildings in the 20th century
Three major eruptions have occurred since 1995
Sustained Ash Venting, 2010
VEI: 3
Phreatic explosion August 1995
Plymouth evacuated
Pyroclastic flows throughout 1996
Large magmatic, explosive eruption September 1996
13 km high column
500,000 tons of ash
More pyroclastic flows in early 1997
Pre-1995
June 1997
August 1997
September 1997
December 1997
June 2003
2003
Pyroclasitc Flow
1997 Plume
January 1997 Incandescence
VEI: 3
Dome collapse
Pyroclastic Flows
Ash clouds up to 7km
VEI: 3
2 explosive events and PFs in 2005
Dome collapse in May 2006
90 million cubic meters
Ash clouds up to 17km
Explosions and PFs occurring through 2010
Vulcanian eruption in February 2010
Plymouth buried under ash and pyroclastic debris, 2006
Pyroclastic Flow, 2010
Cultural Perspectives
British colonized island in 1632 to grow tobacco and sugar
Warm climate
Fertile soil
Volcanic rocks used in every day life
Seating/furniture
Food processing
1995 eruption altered lifestyle
Habitable area minimized
Plants, animals, farmland destroyed
Inhabitants have incorporated volcano and eruptions into music, art and poetry
Arrow,
One Day at a Time:
“Another ash cloud rises high, It grips your soul, down comes the sky."
Artificially colored to show deposits (in white)
Sources
Images
1. http://uncommoncarib.wpengine.netdna-cdn.com/wp-content/uploads/2013/08/DSC_9598-Version-2-1200x675.jpg, January 29, 2015
2. http://www.nationalgeographic.com/features/04/forcesofnature/interactive/resources/large_img/v_map_5.jpg, January 29, 2015
3. http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/e/e9/Montserrat_regions_map.svg/724px-Montserrat_regions_map.svg.png, January 29, 2015
4. http://eoimages.gsfc.nasa.gov/images/imagerecords/42000/42111/montserrat_tmo_2009362.jpg, January 29, 2015
5. http://jgs.lyellcollection.org/content/165/1/279/F1.large.jpg, January 29, 2015
6. http://www.photovolcanica.com/VolcanoInfo/Soufriere%20Hills/MS10_0496.jpg, January 29, 2015
7. http://www.photovolcanica.com/Pictures_V6/Picture_v6_hp17.html, January 29, 2015
8. http://www.photovolcanica.com/VolcanoInfo/Soufriere%20Hills/MS10_0775.jpg, February 12, 2015
9. http://www.photovolcanica.com/Pictures_V1/v1_hp5.jpg, February 12, 2015
10. http://www.photovolcanica.com/Pictures_V5/v5_vp4.jpg, February 12, 2015
11. http://www.photovolcanica.com/Pictures_V5/v5_vp6.jpg, February 12, 2015
12. http://www.photovolcanica.com/VolcanoInfo/Soufriere%20Hills/MSMap600x900.gif, February 12, 2015
13. http://www.photovolcanica.com/VolcanoInfo/Soufriere%20Hills/MSMapJune97600x900.gif, February 12, 2015
14. http://www.photovolcanica.com/VolcanoInfo/Soufriere%20Hills/MSMapPlymouthPF600x900.gif, February 12, 2015
15. http://www.photovolcanica.com/VolcanoInfo/Soufriere%20Hills/MSMapSept97PF600x900.gif, February 12, 2015
16. http://www.photovolcanica.com/VolcanoInfo/Soufriere%20Hills/MSMapBoxDay600x900.gif, February 12, 2015
17. http://www.photovolcanica.com/VolcanoInfo/Soufriere%20Hills/MSMap2003600x900.gif, February 12, 2015
18. http://www.drgeorgepc.com/volcTsuCaribMontserrat.jpg, February 13, 2015
19. http://www.bgs.ac.uk/discoveringGeology/hazards/volcanoes/montserrat/images/Incandescence.jpg, February 13, 2015
20. http://static.guim.co.uk/sys-images/Guardian/Pix/pictures/2009/10/05/1005_mont_460x276.jpg, February 13, 2015
21. http://www.theage.com.au/ffximage/2006/05/01/montserrat_wideweb__430x284,0.jpg, February 14, 2015
22. http://eoimages.gsfc.nasa.gov/images/imagerecords/12000/12841/Montserrat_AMO2004070_lrg.jpeg, February 14, 2015
23. http://www.photovolcanica.com/Pictures_V5/v5_hp10.jpg, February 14, 2015
24. http://www.photovolcanica.com/VolcanoInfo/Soufriere%20Hills/MS10_0717.jpg, February 14, 2015
25. https://volcanoestoptrumps.files.wordpress.com/2013/12/montserrat_ast_2010052.jpg, March 6, 2015
26. http://www.caribbeanandco.com/wp-content/uploads/2014/09/Montserrat_AlphonsusArrowCassell_HotHotHot.jpg, March 6, 2015
27. http://www.freefortourists.com/activity/large/00MontserratVolcanoObservatory-1.jpg, April 13, 2015
28. http://www.tourism-review.com/temp/article_zoom_1283_2.jpg, April 14, 2015
29. http://www.anoleannals.org/wp-content/uploads/2015/03/Screen-Shot-2015-03-07-at-9.03.12-AM.png, April 14, 2015
30. http://www.photovolcanica.com/VolcanoInfo/Soufriere%20Hills/MS10_1658s.jpg, April 14, 2015
31. http://www.photovolcanica.com/VolcanoInfo/Soufriere%20Hills/MS10_1659s.jpg, April 14, 2015
32. http://www.amateurradiodx.com/wp-content/uploads/2015/02/Montserrat.jpg, April 14, 2015
33. https://lh4.googleusercontent.com/VZQWK_4F21-rRt8YBSIwcvKod8o61tzjs2ukopc5riduSNHjtTeiQTy4XqxFrPxbv7cspA=w2432-h1040, April 22, 2015 Photo Courtesy: Karen Harpp
34. https://lh6.googleusercontent.com/LOv407kwBof4-eCJL2lzcl0VubClhy311fgqRydIZJ-dvDCQpSk6licScEVTiKLAXKWlAQ=w2432-h1040, April 22, 2015 Photo Courtesy: Karen Harpp
35. https://lh5.googleusercontent.com/To2tG2Z4NQMgIqAMvkwm9sX160fZbVTgUIdzuqzvkhohUEurZvaykRZT4EhbBUG68GOlOA=w2432-h1040, April 22, 2015 Photo Courtesy: Karen Harpp
36. https://lh6.googleusercontent.com/bX7aEl56zbfV6X-NJn7lS96NS1Ph6f2noSaQILf-NXlBCT9MyP9t2Xplz75uuuCkYCCGdQ=w2432-h1040, April 22, 2015 Photo Courtesy: Karen Harpp
37. https://lh4.googleusercontent.com/8laieqWODA3aIyZc1r0rqZIeYYx09RcJs_6QxX0HZa5iatSdefs79vgVsK9gG_lg6QFbiA=w2432-h1040, April 22, 2015 Photo Courtesy: Karen Harpp
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Soufrière Hills volcano from a distance.
Access to this area is restricted
Zone open, but potentially hazardous
Zone deemed safe
Ash column from 2004 eruption
Subduction Zone
- South American Plate (right) being subducted under Caribbean Plate (left).
Lava dome at night, 2010
Lava dome, 2006
Eruption Timeline
Eruption 1: 1995-2003
Eruption 3: 2005-2013
Eruption 2: 2004
Ash deposits
Ash Column
Ash Column
Current Hazard Zones:
Red
- restricted area, accessed exclusively for scientific and government use only.
Orange
- area open to residents; required to have protective gear and one-hour escape strategies.
Green
- open zone, may be affected by ash fall deposits, but low risk.
Proposed Hazard Map:
Red
- Restricted area, extreme risk, virtual no-go zone. If volcano were to erupt or should a dome collapse occur, PDCs are likely to follow these paths and will reach the ocean in a matter of minutes.
Orange
- High risk, but due to topography and deposits from recent eruptions, may be more lenient on restrictions for possible tourism. Tourists should be prepped on safety procedures and escape routes, and should be overseen by a qualified guide.
Yellow
- Zone at some risk if eruption were to occur, but hasn't seen any significant damage in previous eruptions, likely safe for tourists given proper safety consideration. Signs should be posted detailing safety procedures.
Green
- Safe Zone; no restrictions, very low risk. Area currently open to tourists.
*Montserrat's local government has recently revamped the island's visitors website (http://www.visitmontserrat.com), and is constantly coming up with new campaign strategies to encourage tourism, despite being home to an active volcano. The following updated maps will provide more specific zones, allowing tourists varied levels of access to key points of interest.
Crisis Management - Whose Responsibility Is It?
Scientific Papers:
1. Aspinall WP, Loughlin SC, Michael FV, Miller AD, Norton GE, Rowley KC, Sparks RSJ, Young SR "The Montserrat volcano observatory: its evolution, organization, role and activities." (2002): 1-59. Web. 25 Mar. 2015
2. Haynes, Katharine, Jenni Barclay, and Nick Pidgeon, "The Issue of Trust and Its Influence on Risk Communication during a Volcanic Crisis."
Bulletin of Volcanology
70 (2008): 605-21. Web. 25 Mar. 2015.
3. Hicks, Anna, and Roger Few. "Trajectories of Social Vulnerability during the Soufriere Hills Volcanic Crisis."
Journal of Applied Volcanology
4.10 (2015): n. pag. Web. 21 Mar. 2015
4. Robertson, R. E. A., W. P. Aspinall, R. A. Herd, G. E. Norton, R. S. J. Sparks, and S. R. Young. "The 1995-1998 Eruption of the Soufriere Hills Volcano, Montserrat, WI."
Philosophical Transactions: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences
358.1770 (2000): 1619-637. JSTOR. Web. 25 Mar. 2015.
5. Wilkinson, Emily. "Beyond the Volcanic Crisis: Co-governance of Risk in Montserrat."
Journal of Applied Volcanology
4.3 (2015): n. pag. Web. 23 Mar. 2015.
Before the eruption, Montserrat had high political and fiscal independence from the UK, leading to control over disaster risk management and other investment decisions. (5)
A co-governance program was born out of the crisis, resulting in higher British intervention in local investment decisions. (5)
In the early stages of the eruption, scientists began to give daily briefings regarding hazard assessments and short-term forecasts. (4)
The co-governance regime began in 1999, giving local government power over day-to-day decisions and leaving long-term financial control for the UK government. (4)
Montserrat Volcano Observatory
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Crisis Management - Whose Responsibility Is It?
When eruptions first began in 1995, there was conflict between Montserrat's local government and the UK government. Both were unprepared, leading to inadequate responses. (5)
Shortly after the onset of the 1995 eruption, pressure was placed on the scientists, as the local government was ill-prepared. (4)
Since 1995, scientists, government authorities and the risk management team have butted heads over accountability for the devastation caused by the eruption. (3)
Crisis Management - Whose Responsibility Is It?
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Distrust stemmed early on from the government's initial desire to prevent bad publicity. (4)
In 1976, the neighboring island of Guadeloupe was largely evacuated due to possible volcanic risk, yet no eruption occurred, leading to significant economic costs. The government was therefore weary to assert any certain risk status. (1)
Tension rose between scientists and the government as they disagreed over risk level. (1)
The natural uncertainty that comes with predicting eruptions partially damaged the scientists' credibility. (1)
Activity from February 2010
Crisis Management - Whose Responsibility Is It?
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Plymouth buried under debris
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Exclusion zones set up by scientists and local government.
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1995 Plume
Where Is It?
West Indies
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Andesitic
Soufrière = "Sulfur Outlet"
What's Typical:
Brief Overview:
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Incandescent dome, 2006
Hazard Maps
Proposed Hazard Map:
Red
- Closed areas. Due to danger from PDCs, these areas should only be open to scientists and government officials during periods of low volcanic activity.
Orange
- High risk. Tourists should be prepped on safety procedures and escape routes, and should be overseen by a qualified guide. They should have proper safety gear (i.e. helmets, glasses, radios, etc.), and should only be allowed into these areas during periods of low volcanic activity.
Yellow
- Low Risk. Posted safety procedures and hazard levels should be made clear for visitors, overseer may not be necessary. Tourists should also be made aware of signs of a possible eruption (i.e. increased earthquake activity, small ash clouds, etc.).
Green
- Safe Zone; no restrictions, very low risk. Area freely open to tourists.
So if Montserrat was laying dormant for some 300 year or so... How did they know what to do when it finally erupted in 1995?
Well, in short...
They didn't.
Eruption Stats
Major Events
Eruption Stats
Eruption Stats
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Due to political and cultural influences and issues, many Montserratians opt for knowledge from friends and family, rather than trust scientists or government authorities (2).
This leads to safety issues, and makes it difficult for necessary research to be completed, as the community does not always back these efforts.
Studies have shown, however, that scientists are deemed more competent by the community than the British or local authorities. (2)
It must be acknowledged that, due to Montserrat's prolonged eruptive phase, the social climate as a whole was changed dramatically, as ramifications for the society's morality and economy were more sustained. (3)
Crisis management in this case not only means assessing danger and damages from volcanic activity and deposits, but also assessing the vulnerability of the community as a whole
Typical Deposits
Unsorted Lahar or PDC Material:
Pumice
Lithics
Ash
Pumice
Lithic
Pyroclastic flow material created new land
Pumice
Lithics
Ash
Moderately Sorted
Mainly Lithics
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A nice summary and analysis of the activity. (11 min.)
Just to keep the hazards in mind, here's what Plymouth looked like in 1997 (9 min)
1. Aspinall WP, Loughlin SC, Michael FV, Miller AD, Norton GE, Rowley KC, Sparks RSJ, Young SR "The Montserrat volcano observatory: its evolution, organization, role and activities." (2002): 1-59. Web. 25 Mar. 2015
2. Haynes, Katharine, Jenni Barclay, and Nick Pidgeon, "The Issue of Trust and Its Influence on Risk Communication during a Volcanic Crisis."
Bulletin of Volcanology
70 (2008): 605-21. Web. 25 Mar. 2015.
3. Hicks, Anna, and Roger Few. "Trajectories of Social Vulnerability during the Soufriere Hills Volcanic Crisis."
Journal of Applied Volcanology
4.10 (2015): n. pag. Web. 21 Mar. 2015
4. Robertson, R. E. A., W. P. Aspinall, R. A. Herd, G. E. Norton, R. S. J. Sparks, and S. R. Young. "The 1995-1998 Eruption of the Soufriere Hills Volcano, Montserrat, WI."
Philosophical Transactions: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences
358.1770 (2000): 1619-637. JSTOR. Web. 25 Mar. 2015.
5. Wilkinson, Emily. "Beyond the Volcanic Crisis: Co-governance of Risk in Montserrat."
Journal of Applied Volcanology
4.3 (2015): n. pag. Web. 23 Mar. 2015.
6. Roscoe, Richard. "Soufriere Hills Volcano." Soufriere Hills Volcano. PhotoVolcanica, n.d. Web. 8 Feb. 2015. <http://www.photovolcanica.com/VolcanoInfo/Soufriere%20Hills/Soufriere%20Hills.html>.
7. "Soufrière Hills." Global Volcanism Program. Smithsonian Institution Global Volcanism Program, n.d. Web. 7 Feb. 2015. <http://www.volcano.si.edu/volcano.cfm?vn=360050>.
8. Cashman, Katharine V., and Shane J. Cronin. "Welcoming a Monster to the World: Myths, Oral Tradition, and Modern Societal Response to Volcanic Disasters." Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research 176 (2008): 407-18. Web. 10 Mar. 2015.
Monitoring Today:
Montserrat Volcano Observatory
Weekly Updates - Primarily visual observations and seismic activity
Capable of gas monitoring
Analysis of pyroclastic flow material
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http://www.mvo.ms
https://www.facebook.com/mvoms
Source 7
Source: 8
Sources: 6 and 7
Sources: 4, 6, 7
Sources: 4, 6, 7
Sources: 1, 4, 6, 7
Sources: 7
Sources: 4, 6
Source: 1
Sources: 1, 3, 5
Sources: 3, 5, 8
Full transcript