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RBT Modules 27 & 28

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Michael Cameron

on 8 September 2015

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Transcript of RBT Modules 27 & 28

Definition
of a Prompt
Prompts are required
when the Registered
Behavior Technician does not get a response to occur consistently in the
presence of a target
antecedent stimulus
Forms of
Prompts
Kinesthetic and tactile (e.g., physical guidance)

Module Goals
Full physical assistance. The RBT uses full hand-over-hand support. The learner's movements are
completely
guided by the RBT
Partial Physical Prompt. The learner's movements are only partially guided
Gestural
Pointing
Motioning
Nodding
Gazing
Registered Behavior Technician
Modules 27, 28, 29, and 30

Write your story
Independence and responding to natural stimuli
Instructor:

Dr. Michael Cameron
Registered Behavior Technician Modules:

C-07, C-08, C-09, and C-10 (Skill Acquisition)
Titles:

Implement Prompt and Prompt Fading
Procedures (C-10) and Implement Discrimination Training (C-07), Implement stimulus control transfer procedures (C-08), and Implement stimulus fading procedures (C-09)
Duration:
90 Minutes
Assessment:

Competency based quiz (5 questions)

Demonstration Recommendations:
At the
conclusion of this training,
Ask
your BCBA supervisor to review the different prompt, prompt fading, and discrimination training procedures they use,
Review
video recordings of interventionists using prompt, prompt fading, and discrimination training procedures, and then
Demonstrate
your ability to use the procedures within a session
Define the term "prompt"
Discuss why prompts are sometimes required
before and during instruction
Discuss the various forms of prompts you will use
as a Registered Behavior Technician
Discuss prompt fading and
stimulus control transfer
Discuss discrimination training
A prompt is a supplemental antecedent stimulus that is used when a target stimulus (i.e., a naturally occurring stimulus) does not
reliably control a target response class
Do you have a friend that
repeatedly calls you for
directions? Do they not
focus on the relevant
environmental cues?
Target stimuli
may take a
variety of forms




Vibration
Modeled actions (in vivo or video recorded)
Gestures
Verbalizations (in vivo or recorded)
Pictures
Text
Icons or symbols
Use prompts enough to get target responses to occur frequently enough to get reinforced
When a response class is being trained, and does not have strength, the RBT should provide whatever assistance (prompts) is necessary to ensure high rates of correct responding and low rates of errors
Ultimately the prompt has to
be faded and control needs to be transferred from
the prompt to naturally occurring stimuli and
relevant environmental cues
Prompting
Methods
Graduated Guidance
Full Modeling and Partial Model.
A "demonstration"
prompt, used in combination with other
forms of prompts
Video Modeling
Video Self Modeling.
A "demonstration"
prompt that is recorded.
This form of prompting
requires the learner to
have imitation skills
Full Verbal
Partial Verbal
(phonemic). This is the
most common form of
prompt reported in the behavior
analytic literature. Verbal prompts
are words, instructions, or questions
that are supposed to direct a
person to engage in a target response
Positional
Prompts (stimulus
prompt). A type
of stimulus prompt
that involves moving the stimulus
you want the learner to respond to
(given an array of stimuli)
closest to the learner

Photographs or Line Drawings

Within Stimulus Prompting
and Stimulus Shaping
Alter the properties or features
of the stimuli (auditory volume, shape,
size, intensity) to
prompt behavior
Extra Stimulus
Prompting
Does not involve
altering the
properties or
features
Textual or Written Prompts.
The learner's responses
are guided by written cues
such as checklists, scripts, and written instructions
Auditory Prompts.
Tones and alarms
that signal
a person to engage
in a target behavior

Our Goal
Time to Fade
Prompts can be faded along any of several dimensions. Your plan for prompt fading should
be systematic and considered at the onset of training
Physical prompts can
be faded along the dimension
of spatial location (Graduated Guidance)
Within-stimulus prompts can be faded
along the dimension of intensity (intensity
fading) or form (stimulus shaping)
Most prompts can be faded along the
dimension of time (delayed prompt)
Fade prompts quickly in an
effort to prevent prompt
dependency
Use prompts if the learner is about to respond incorrectly, responds incorrectly, or does not
respond at all
Audio
Response Prompts: Supplemental stimuli (instructions, modeling,
physical guidance) that cause a target behavior to occur in the presence of the relevant stimulus

Stimulus Prompts: When characteristics of the relevant (target) stimuli are modified or exaggerated to increase the likelihood
of the occurrence of the desired behavior

See a word, read it
Smell a flower, describe it
Hear a direction, follow it
Touch an object, label it
Taste an item, accept or reject
Encounter others, greet them
Your body tilts, adjust it
Notice the cold, dress properly
Language Skills
Communication
Social Skills
Vocational Skills
Motor Skills
Play Skills
Adaptive Skills
Cognitive Skills
Response prompts can be faded via: (a) most-to-least prompt sequences, (b) graduated guidance, (c) least-to-most prompt sequences, and (d) time-delay.

With stimulus prompts, the exaggerated or modified features of
stimuli are gradually reduced until the relevant stimulus has returned to its original state

Stimulus Control

A stimulus acquires discriminative control
when a target behavior has been reinforced only in its presence (and the target behavior's
occurrence is
not
reinforced in the presence of other stimuli)
Teaching a learner to
respond appropriately to
specific stimuli is the
instructor's basic job

Discrimination Training
Discrimination training involves the use of selective
reinforcement and extinction to generate differential responding to two or more stimuli. Training a driver to "stop" when the light is red and to "go" when the light is
green is an example.

The act of responding differentially
to stimuli (e.g., different colored lights)
is called stimulus discrimination. It is the
ultimate goal of discrimination training to
evoke stimulus discrimination through the
use of differential reinforcement and extinction. The process may involve repeated trials (e.g., in a discrete trial training format). Discrimination (and matching skills) are components of most all skills you will teach
your learners (cognitive skills, communication, social skills, academic skills, vocational skills, self-care skills).
Therefore, the emphasis on discrimination training is
appropriate.

Dr. Gina Green
Questions

Answers

What is a prompt?
Supplemental, auxiliary, extra, or artificial stimuli
that are presented immediately before or after the
stimuli that will eventually cue the learner to display the behavior of interest at the appropriate time or in the relevant circumstances

The instructor provides manual
prompts to complete an action, and
then fades these prompts by changing
the intensity or location of the prompt.

The learner receives whatever
assistance (prompts) they require
to successfully perform a skill when
instruction begins. Over successive
teaching trials, the amount of assistance
is gradually reduced until no prompts
are provided.


The instructor provides
a sequence of prompts
that begins with minimal
assistance and progresses
to more assistance. Initially,
the naturally controlling
stimulus (i.e., the stimulus
that should have control over
the behavior) may be presented
without prompts

To other people, materials or activities to indicate
an action to be performed
Pictures, photographs, and line
drawing have been used to
prompt a wide variety of behaviors
(e.g., meal preparation, self-care)
Prompts are defined as "auxiliary", "extra", or "artificial" stimuli that are presented immediately before or after the stimuli that will eventually cue
the learner to display the behavior of interest at the appropriate time or in the relevant circumstances (e.g., Foxx, 1982).


Why are prompts needed?
Because the desired response is not in
a person's repertoire

What do you ultimately want
to learner to respond to?

The naturally occurring stimuli
What form of prompt involves initially
changing the physical properties of
the stimulus?

Within-Stimulus Prompting
What form of prompt involves using
written instructions?

A text prompt
Criterion-related

Non-criterion related
Full transcript