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Transcript of Space
better = makes predictions
best = allows you to test predictions Seasons Why do we have seasons? tilt! Motion of Planets around the sun. Gravity Invisible force
Has Mass and a distance between it = gravity Geocentric Model Heliocentric model Geo-centric = Earth centered universe Helio-centric = Sun centered universe None are true! Were the center of nothing! circular motion Shorter the radius the faster the orbital speed
Longer the radius the slower the orbital speed. Why do we need to know this? Life and Death cycle of stars Star: A large celestial body that is composed of gas and emits light. How do stars produce heat? Fussion: combines the nuclei of hydrogen atoms into Helium Stars are formed from clouds of dust and gas, or nebula, and go through different stages as they age. Light Year: The distance light travels in one year; about 9.46 trillion kilometers We learn about stars through energy Stars emit a full range of electromagnetic radiation, from high-energy x-rays to low energy radio waves. Stars appear to be brighter than others the brightness of a star depends on the stars temperature, size, and distance from Earth A stars color is related to its temperature. Hotter objects glow with light that has shorter wavelengths (closer to the blue end of the spectrum) Cooler objects glow with light that has longer wavelengths (closer to the red end of the spectrum) Hot stars emit more energy Life cycle The size of the star will determine the life cycle. A big star will use more energy, and will use it quicker than a smaller one. A big star will also colapse on itself from its size. a smaller one will not. Spectrums of Light Spectrum: The visible spectrum is the portion of the electromagnetic spectrum that is visible to (can be detected by) the human eye. Light passing through a cold gas makes an absorption spectrum.(bands of black lines) Different spectrum Light emitted from a hot gas makes a emissions spectrum. (bands of color) continuous spectrum are made from other sources of light. (no lines or brakes) Different elements have different spectrum. It is the elements "finger-print" Doppler effect s the change in frequency of a wave for an observer moving relative to the source of the wave. How do we use Doppler? Red Shift Blue Shift redshift happens when light seen coming from an object is proportionally increased in wavelength, or shifted to the red end of the spectrum. Moving away from the observer A blueshift is any decrease in wavelength Doppler blueshift is caused by movement of a source towards the observer Expansion of the Universe and the
Big Bang why do we think it is expanding? What does it mean if we are expanding? What are some other Theories? How do we know? what is a Universe? Big Bang The universe is commonly defined as the totality of everything that exists, including all physical matter and energy, the planets, stars, galaxies, and the contents of intergalactic space. Doppler effect everything is away from us. (red shifted) The Big Bang model or theory is the prevailing cosmological theory of the early development of the universe. According to the Big Bang model, the universe was originally in an extremely hot and dense state that expanded rapidly. Based on the best available measurements as of 2010, the original state of the universe existed around 13.7 billion years ago, The theory is the most comprehensive and accurate explanation supported by scientific evidence and observations. Big Crunch
Mulitiverse before the big bang? we don't really know yet Why doesn't Gravity Keep us from expanding? Dark Energy and Dark Matter Doesn't really Bang.