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Transcript of Social Psychology
Dimensions of Culture (Harry Triandis)
What is the role CULTURE plays in influencing the INDIVIDUAL?
How does this cultural dimension (individualism/collectivism) help describe HOW people interact with each other?
Ex. United States
Ex. Japan, India
How we go about explaining the causes of behavior (self and others)
behavior due to INTERNAL traits
behavior due to EXTERNAL factors
Attribution Biases and Errors
- evaluative judgments
attitudes regarding perceived faults of others; may lead to DISCRIMINATION
Imbalanced attribution of causes of behavior
Fundamental Attribution Error
factors and UNDERESTIMATE
Ex. Driver cut me off because he is a(n) ______
my SUCCESS due to
my FAILURE due to
Ex. I aced the test because I'm smart; I failed the test because the teacher is a moron.
MY behavior due to
factors; YOUR behavior due to
Ex. I failed because of the situation; you failed because you are an idiot
GOOD people rewarded; BAD people punished
Ex. Person deserved to get sick
leads to "blaming the victim"
expectations bring behavior that confirms expectations
attitudes more positive with more exposure
Elaboration Likelihood Model
two ROUTES of PERSUASION
MESSAGE is important
PRESENTER is important
mental discomfort when attitudes/beliefs don't match actions (or match other beliefs)
Ex. Don't drink... go to a party and drink... what now?
change beliefs OR change behavior to relieve dissonance
(Festinger and Carlsmith, 1959)
Giving a speech about Causes of the American Civil War...
Shooting the winning free throw
Playing video games
(in the presense of others)...
(within the group)
Need for Affiliation
Social and Cultural Norms
In-Group Bias on an ethnic / cultural scale
unjustified attitude of disdain towards "out-group"
Blaming the "Out-Group" for ills of society (linked with "Just-World" Hypothesis)
The Bystander Effect
Darley & Latane (1968)
Tendency for helping behavior to diminish in the presence of others
Diffusion of Responsibility
perception of individual responsibility lessens with each additional observer
All Social Thinking can be understood in terms of...
We may develop Prejudice as we interact with others
The Attribution Theory (Process) offers and explanation for why we use steretypes the we do...
Consider the classic Stanford Prison Experiment... why did they take on their roles so easily?
Of course, we often show Bias and commit errors when using this Attribution Process...
Our stereotypes about people may lead us to a Self-Fulfilling Prophecy when we interact with them...
If you think these girls are mean (because your stereotype of them says they will be), you may treat them meanly, and then, SURPRISE, they are mean back. (BUT, whose fault is that? Theirs, or yours?)
Let's look now at stereotypes more broadly as ATTITUDES, and ask "How can attitudes be changed?"
What contributes to...
If you use mostly DISPOSITIONAL attributes to explain others behaviors, how might that impact your attitude toward them?
Group Dynamics and Conformity
Compliance and Obedience
Group Performance and Decision Making
In helping situations (emergencies, even), why do some people help and others do not?
Considering cultural influence, group influence and the individual, why do we relate to others as we do?
Now, let's link this to a practical area of study important to social psychologists...
Decision "Tree" for Helping
Devised by researchers Darley and Latane to explain why one may help another...
INDEPENDENT self; needs of individual esteemed over that of the group
... fosters INTERDEPENDENT self; needs of individual are subordinate to those of the group
ONE way to understand impact of CULTURE is to cosider...
Quickly estimate the number of dots you see and write down your estimate:
- stereotypes are a type of attitude
We use TWO different types of attributions
Why does she appear disinterested about what he has to say?
Why is she homeless?
- have a class with people from other cultures you don't currently like
- after several interactions, you start to like those people
consider the last presidential election as an example
- What's more important: the person or the message?
Let us begin with the famous "Stanford Prison Experiment" (from Zimbardo, et al., 1973)
The question: what best explains this example of social influence at work?
Asch (1955) did most famous conformity study...
Normative Social Influence
Of course, there are other examples...
Milgram (1963) conducted the famous "shock experiment" to study obedience...
Could the results of this study be replicated today??
When some social ill occurs, prejudice can lead to...
Using analysis of In-Group Bias may help us begin to explain...
Two specific ideas are offered here to finish the explanation...
(Robert Zajonc, various)
(be sure to come back to the Prezi after watching the Voicethread)
A Modern Day example of Bystander Effect...
Before we take a look at Social Interaction, let's remind ourselves about the importance of...