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Social Psychology

Prezi demonstrating interaction of individuals within social contexts, with emphasis on how groups impact individuals and vice versa.
by

Derek Miller

on 11 April 2018

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Transcript of Social Psychology

Social Psychology
Cultural Influence
Social Cognition
Social Influence
Basic Principles
Dimensions of Culture (Harry Triandis)
Individualistic
Collectivistic
What is the role CULTURE plays in influencing the INDIVIDUAL?
How does this cultural dimension (individualism/collectivism) help describe HOW people interact with each other?
Overarching Question:
Ex. United States
Ex. China, India
Stereotypes
Attribution Process
How we go about explaining the causes of behavior (self and others)
Dispositional Attributions
Situational Attributions
behavior due to INTERNAL traits
behavior due to EXTERNAL factors
Attribution Biases and Errors
Prejudice
Attitudes
- evaluative judgments
Forming Attitudes
Changing Attitudes
attitudes regarding perceived faults of others; may lead to DISCRIMINATION
Imbalanced attribution of causes of behavior
Fundamental Attribution Error
OVERESTIMATE
dispositional
factors and UNDERESTIMATE
situational
factors
Ex. Driver cut me off because he is a(n) ______
Self-Serving Bias
my SUCCESS due to
dispositional
factors and

my FAILURE due to
situational
factors
Ex. I aced the test because I'm smart; I failed the test because the teacher is a moron.
Actor-Observer Bias
MY behavior due to
situational
factors; YOUR behavior due to

dispostional
factors
Ex. I failed because of the situation; you failed because you are an idiot
"Just-World" Hypothesis
GOOD people rewarded; BAD people punished
Ex. Person deserved to get sick
leads to "blaming the victim"
Self-Fulfilling Prophecy
expectations bring behavior that confirms expectations
Mere-Exposure
attitudes more positive with more exposure
Elaboration Likelihood Model
two ROUTES of PERSUASION
Central Route
Peripheral Route
MESSAGE is important
PRESENTER is important
Cognitive Dissonance
mental discomfort when attitudes/beliefs don't match actions (or match other beliefs)
Ex. Don't drink... go to a party and drink... what now?
change beliefs OR change behavior to relieve dissonance
(Festinger and Carlsmith, 1959)
Social Facilitation
Performance
Social Inhibition
Giving a speech about Causes of the American Civil War...
OR
Shooting the winning free throw
Playing video games
(in the presense of others)...
Creates
Arousal
Leading to...
Making Decisions
(within the group)
Group Polarization
Groupthink
In-Group /
Attraction
Need for Affiliation
Common Attitudes
Social and Cultural Norms
In-Group Formation...
Ethnocentrism
Prejudice
In-Group Bias on an ethnic / cultural scale
Out-Group
Bias
unjustified attitude of disdain towards "out-group"
Scapegoating
Blaming the "Out-Group" for ills of society (linked with "Just-World" Hypothesis)
Helping Behavior
The Bystander Effect
Darley & Latane (1968)
Tendency for helping behavior to diminish in the presence of others
Driven by
Diffusion of Responsibility
perception of individual responsibility lessens with each additional observer
Topics to Explain...
Aggression
Attraction
Altruism
Prejudice
Stereotypes
Attributions
Learning
All Social Thinking can be understood in terms of...
Example Attitude: Prejudice may develop as we interact with others
The Attribution Theory (Process) offers an explanation for why we use stereotypes the way do...
Consider the classic Stanford Prison Experiment (Zimbardo & Colleagues, 1972)... why did the participants act the way that they did?
Attitude applied can result in a Self-Fulfilling Prophecy when we interact with others...
If you think these girls are mean (because your stereotype of them says they will be), you may treat them meanly, and then, SURPRISE, they are mean back. (BUT, whose fault is that? Theirs, or yours?)
Let's look now at attitudes more broadly, and ask
"How are attitudes formed?"
"How can attitudes be changed?"
What contributes to...
If you use mostly DISPOSITIONAL attributes to explain others behaviors, how might that impact your attitude toward them?
Conformity
Compliance
Group Performance and Decision Making
Looking for...
"Foot-in-the-Door"
and
"Door-in-the-Face"
In helping situations (emergencies, even), why do some people help and others do not?
Decision "Tree" for Helping
Devised by researchers Darley and Latane to explain why one may help another...
...fosters
INDEPENDENT self; needs of individual esteemed over that of the group
... fosters INTERDEPENDENT self; needs of individual are subordinate to those of the group
ONE way to understand impact of CULTURE is to cosider...
Quickly estimate the number of dots you see and write down your estimate:
- stereotypes are a type of attitude
We use TWO different types of attributions
Why does she appear disinterested about what he has to say?
Why is she (apparently) homeless?
- have a class with people from other cultures you don't currently like
- after several interactions, you start to like those people
consider the last presidential election as an example
- What's more important: the person or the message?
Let us begin with the famous "Stanford Prison Experiment" (from Zimbardo, et al., 1973)
The question: what best explains this example of social influence at work?
https://voicethread.com/share/4916594/
https://voicethread.com/share/4915368/
Solomon Asch (1950) did most famous conformity study...
Normative Social Influence
Milgram (1963) conducted the famous "shock experiment" to study obedience...
https://voicethread.com/share/4909068/
http://voicethread.com/share/4916524/
https://voicethread.com/share/4915214/
Could the results of this study be replicated today??
(Robert Cialdini)
When some social ill occurs, prejudice can lead to...
Two specific ideas are offered here to finish the explanation...
(Robert Zajonc, various)
http://voicethread.com/myvoice/#thread/4915280/
(be sure to come back to the Prezi after watching the Voicethread)
A Modern Day example of Bystander Effect...
culture...
culture...
Compliance Techniques
"Foot-in-the-Door" Technique
"Door-in-the-Face" Technique
Compliance with a small request may lead to granting of larger request
Denial of an outrageous request may lead to compliance with lesser request
- Think of ways your family and friends have used these with YOU...
- Think of ways YOU have used these techniques with family and friends
Consider each of the following scenarios...
Obedience
Informational Social Influence
Getting Started
Agenda (3/15/18)... Principles/Research in Social Psychology
Device:
Phones
Materials:
Binder, Utensil
Please make sure you have a Social Psych cover page
Review/Preview...
Diagram to Introduce Social Psych
Lesson...
"Underestimator/Overestimator" Activity
Target SOP1: Principles and Research in Social Psychology
- Lecture... Small Group Discussions
- Focus1: "Stanford Prison Experiment"
- Focus2: "Blue Eyes, Brown Eyes" Demonstration
Classic Study:
Zimbardo & Colleagues (1972)
Prison simulation at Stanford
Demonstrates many issues social psychologists examine, such as...
Using a scale of 1 (lowest) - 5 (highest), rate ONE person from your own group, and ONE person from the other group on the following characteristics:
intelligence laziness
kindness generosity
pride outgoing
Getting Started
Agenda (3/27/18)... Social Cognition - Attribution Process
Device:
NONE (Phones in bag/put away, please)
Materials:
Binder, Utensil
Please make sure you have 'Attribution Scale' paper turned onto Side 1
Review/Preview...
WELCOME BACK!!... Psych Moment, Anyone?
Fill out 'Attribution Scale' (Side 1 = you; Side 2 = me)
Lesson...
Discussion - What ARE Stereotypes, exactly?
Target SOP3: Social Cognition - Attribution Process
- Lecture... Applications (on left page)
- Discussion - Attribution Errors and Biases
Return Cognitive Psych Exams
Getting Started
Agenda (3/29/18)... Social Cognition - Attitudes
Device:
Phone OR Chromebook (not both)
Materials:
Binder, Utensil
Go ahead and get started responding to the writing practice Question in Classroom; IAT after
Review/Preview...
Writing - Attribution Process (Question in Classroom)
Do 'Age' IAT (attached to Question)
Lesson...
Discussion: Attitudes and Actions
Target SOP2: Social Cognition - Attitudes
- Lecture... Applications (on left page)
- Discussion - Methods for Changing Attitudes
Watch the video and be prepared to discuss what YOU would have done and why.
Getting Started
Agenda (4/3/18)... Social Thinking and Conformity
Device:
Phone
Materials:
Binder, Utensil
Please put 'Social Influence' handout in binder as last page; Be ready for brief AP Exam review
Review/Preview...
Brief AP Exam Review - Research Methods
Formative Assessment - Targets SOP1, 2, 3 (in Classroom)
Lesson...
Forming "Societies" Activity
Target SOP4: Social Influence and Conformity
- Fill in Notes (On 'Conformity' side)
- Lecture... Demonstrations... Discussion

** Social Psych Exam - Tuesday, 4/10/18 **
Forming "Societies" Activity
* Form yourselves into group of NO LESS THAN 4 and NO MORE THAN 5
* Discuss and be ready to report on the following:
1. Why did you join the group you did?
2. What are your group norms (rules/
expectations)?
Getting Started
Agenda (4/5/18)... Social Influence and Performance
Device:
Phone
Materials:
Binder, Utensil
Please sit with the "society" (group) you joined last class, and in the same exact seat
Review/Preview...
AP Exam Review (Approaches)
A Little "What Would You Do?" Discussion Activity...
Lesson...
Target SOP5: Social Influence and Performance
- Activities... Discussions... Notes (On 'Performance' side)
- Paper Airplanes, School Uniforms, and Helping Others

** Social Psych Exam - Tuesday, 4/10/18 **
What would you do if...
You could do anything and no one would ever know...
Exam Preparation
Exam Procedure
1. Seat is where your Zipgrade form is; Have pencil and/or pen on your desk;
2. Phone/Electronics MUST NOT be on you as exam starts.
3. Bags to side or back (no bags at desk for exam day)
1. Some Basics:
- DO NOT write on Multiple Choice
- Use pen or pencil on MC; pen preferred on FRQ
2. Complete Main Multiple Choice Part
- Targets SOP1 - SOP5 (Questions 1-25; 5 Questions per Target)
- 18 Minutes
3. Complete Free Response Question (FRQ)
- Answer ALL Six Items
- 25 Minutes
4. Complete Reassessment
- Targets CP1 - CP6 (Questions 26-43; 3 Questions per Target)
After hearing respected medical authorities lecture about the value of regular exercise, Raul, who has rarely exercised, begins to jog regularly. The change in Raul's behavior best illustrates the impact of:
a. informational social influence.
b. the foot-in-the-door phenomenon.
c. the mere exposure effect.
d. social facilitation.
e. normative social influence.


The "Stimulus" Question:
Full transcript