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Greek Philosophers: Socrates, Plato, Aristotle
Transcript of Greek Philosophers: Socrates, Plato, Aristotle
Old Athenian soldier and stonecutter
Wealthy idealist who declared that average citizens were unable to govern wisely
Pupil of Plato
7 min, Extra Enrichment
7 min, Extra Enrichment
Questioned accepted values of Athens: democracy, patriotism, & religion
People must examine their ideas by the standard of truth and reason
Three prosecutors accused him of not accepting the gods of Athens and of corrupting the young
The prosecutors proposed death penalty
Established the Academy which ran for 900 years
Vision of the perfectly governed society was not democracy
Dominated thought in Europe for nearly 1,500 years
Believed that every truth followed from other truths
Helped to develop rational, scientific thought
Be kind, for everyone you meet is fighting a hard battle
Death is not the worst that can happen to men
The price good men pay for indifference to public affairs is to be ruled by evil men
There is only one good, knowledge, and one evil, ignorance
The unexamined life is not worth living for man
A friend is a second self
Happiness depends upon ourselves
4. "The Republic"
6. Philosopher King
Rulers of utopia
Allegory of the Cave
Who believed that in an ideal society the government should be controlled by a class of "philosopher kings"?
He who trusts any man with supreme power gives it to a wild beast, for such his appetite sometimes makes him: passion influences those in power, even the best of men, but law is reason without desire...
Which feature of modern Western democratic government reflects Aristotle's views as given above?
A: the direct election of members of the legislature
B: the power of the courts to review the law
C: the granting of emergency powers ot the chief executive
D: the requirement that government actions must adhere to the law
...for the administration of justice...is the principle of order in political society
From Aristotle's statement above, it can be inferred that
A: monarchs protect citizens from tyranny
B: only elected officials should impose laws
C: laws maintain the stability of the nation
D: majority rule ensures a stable government