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British Colonies

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Ashley Leyba

on 2 January 2015

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Transcript of British Colonies

First English Colony in the New World
Joint Stock Company, awarded to the VA Company of London
What does this mean?
Company appoints Governor, councillors, etc.
How does it impact the life of the colony?
First settlement was at Jamestown
John Winthrop
Settled by a group of Puritans who did not want to remain in Plymouth
Joint Stock Charter for the Massachusetts Bay Company
Charter was unusual--contained an error that allowed the settlers to be self-governing
Within first year, over 1,000 settlers would make their way to MA
Whole middle class families made journey
[Sometimes] entire towns made the journey to MA
Not tolerant of non-Puritans
Massachusetts Bay Colony (1629)
Lord Baltimore
1632: Charles I grants land north of the Potomac River to the Calvert family (headed by Lord Baltimore)
First settlers arrive in 1634
Maryland was to be a Catholic haven
Many settlers, though, were Protestant
Sources of tension
Minority, Catholic owners (hold political power) vs. majority Protestant freemen and indentured servants
Source of Revenue
Maryland (1632)
British Colonies
20 Africans arrive in Jamestown in 1619
Originally considered indentured servants
VA doesn't enact legislation re: slavery until the 1660s
Main Points:
First generation of Americans made conscious choice to institute slavery
Slave system evolved over decades
Racism is a social construct
Birth of American Slavery
Plymouth Colony (1620)
Map of Plymouth Colony
Settled by English Pilgrims (Separatists)
1619: Granted right to settle in VA, but get blown off course
End up in the north, settle there (receive a royal charter later)
Mayflower Compact
Agree that government would be democratic and based on majority rule
William Bradford: Governor for over 30 years
Roger Williams
Founded by Roger Williams
RW believed that God was to be found in each person, not in a Church
Believed in separation of church and state
Believed it was wrong to take advantage of Native Americans
Settled RI with the Narragansett Indians
Allowed for complete religious toleration
Government completely separate from church
How did others view RI?
Rhode Island (1636)
Problems with Jamestown
Climate and Environment
Profit and Priorities
Native Americans not always friendly
John Smith
Work or Starve
Help from Powhatans
Did this work?
"Starving Time"
John Rolfe, 1613
Develops new method for curing tobacco
Demand for tobacco grows throughout England and the colonies
Easy to grow in VA
Finally....a source of $$$
JR also marries Pocahontas, which ushered in a period of peace with the Powhatans
Tobacco and the Economy
Labor intensive--who does the work?
Indentured Servants
Beginning of the Plantation System
"Headright system"
50 acres awarded/ person brought over
Allows people to amass large plantations
Changing Political Situation
1619: Settlers demand and receive a representative government--House of Burgesses
HoB works with the Governor, BUT.....
Almost in constant conflict
Pass laws w/o consent of the governor
Withhold governor's pay to get their way
1624: VA Company is dissolved; state becomes a royal colony
By 1624, 14,000 people had traveled from England to VA......only 1,232 had survived
Religious Toleration?
1649: Maryland Toleration Act
Granted Religious Freedom to all Christians
Who does this exclude?
Key Moment: Bacon's Rebellion
Times were tough, but able to survive
Relied on the help of local Native American tribes
By 1621, settlers had enough food stored to survive the winter
Dissolved in 1691 (absorbed into Massachusetts
Never a "force" in early period b/c of harsh religious and moral codes
In 1691, only 7,000 people in territory
John Winthrop
Leader of MBC for 19+ years; acts as governor
Very capable leader and lawyer
Also served as a religious leader
MA would be as a "city upon a hill"
Government in MBC
Government evolves to become a bicameral general assembly with elected officials
All male members of the church were allowed to participate in government
Importance of Town Hall Meetings
Anne Hutchinson
Female Religious leader
Puritan Dissident
Banished from MBC, fled to RI
Later moved to New Amsterdam
She and her family were killed by Native Americans
Winthrop sees this as approval of his actions
Connecticut (1639)
Settled by Thomas Hooker
Representative government open to all men, not just those who belong to the church
NE Interactions with Native Americans
Varied by time and place
King Philip's War (1675-1676)
New England setters vs. New England tribes (led by Metacom, aka King Philip)
KP launched full-scale attack against all white settlers
Initially, very successful (for KP)-settlers pushed back to Boston
This was not sustainable
Native Americans ran out of supplies, impacted by disease
Eventually pushed all the way out of the region
Dominant Confession in the NE
Belief in the "elect"
Given a mission by God
Belief in hard work
Role of Providence
NOT a theocracy
Key Moment: Salem Witch Trials, 1692
Young girls claim people in the town were witches
~150 people accused
About 50 confessed to witchcraft (all survived)
19 people hung as witches (all proclaimed innocence)
Ends when the governor's wife accused of witchcraft
Trials simply a way to get rid of social deviants
Ergot poisoning
Chesapeake: Profit; upper-class gentlemen and indentured servants; rough environment, difficult life (life expectancy= 40)
New England: Religious Freedom; middle-class families; more hospitable (life expectancy=70+)
Middle: Previously Dutch; Religious Freedom
Southern: Plantations and Backcountry; Slave Culture
Spain: Colonization and Conversion; seeking natural resources (especially precious metals); very abusive towards Native Americans
France: Fur trade; good relations with Native Americans
England/Britain: Permanent Colonization; land claims can lead to conflict with the Native Americans; numerical advantage over other colonists
New York (1664) & New Jersey (1702)
New York founded by the Dutch as a fur trading outpost
Acquired from the Dutch in 1664
NJ originally two provinces; united in 1702
William Penn
Received a proprietary charter from Charles II for new colony in PA in 1681
From a wealthy family with royal connections
Converts to Quakerism in 1667, and leaves old life behind
Quakers experienced persecution from other confessions in England
Some Quakers burned at stake for their beliefs
Why? What scared others?
Opposed slavery and war (pacifists)
Supported equality of the sexes
Ceremony eliminated from church services
Anyone could be ministers
Pennsylvania (1682)
Maintained friendly relationships with Native American neighbors
Peace in PA throughout the colonial period
Arrive in colony unarmed
First and Second Frames of Government (1682/3)
Instituted Trial by Jury
Submit proposals by gov't to be voted on by the people
Bicameral; Penn does NOT have veto power
Abolished capital punishment
Completely religiously tolerant
Economic success (primarily grew grains)
Quakers v. Puritans
Women were equals in the households
Quaker children received more affection than Puritan children
Puritan children were punished
2-3 children per Quaker family; 6-8 for Puritans
Quakers encouraged to marry within their community
Qs looked upon as "clannish"
The Carolinas (1663, 1729)
NC founded by former servants from MD and VA; SC founded by plantation owners from Sugar Islands
SC imported its slave system intact and had a black majority
Major Products:
SC: rice and lumber
NC: tobacco
Government in the Carolinas
Drafted Fundamental Constitution (Written by John Locke in 1669)
Secret ballot
Had to be an Anglican to be involved/vote
Power consolidate in hands of landowners
Want "ideal" aristocratic society
Rotation of office
Bicameral legislature
Accepted slavery
Colonists did NOT like this
South Carolina
Charleston was number one exporter of Native American slaves
SC was the ONLY colony to have an African American majority
By 1720, twice as many slaves as whites
Stricter, harsher laws re: slavery
SC was leader in rice production--how does this impact slavery?
Georgia (1733)
Founded by James Oglethorpe as a social experiment (haven for the poor)
Land would be given away (but NOT to women)
Founders planned to produce silk twine--> epic fail
Banned slavery (1752) and hard liquor
Experiment failed miserably; royal government took over in 1752 and overturned all legislation
Begin to mimic SC with slavery and rice
Colonial Backcountry
Area between the Atlantic coastal plain and the Appalachian Mountains
Tidewater Plantations
Prime land
Social, Economic, Political Advantages
Close to rivers (land = more fertile)
River access = easier to sell/move goods
More secure
Problems in the Backcountry
Mostly poor
Large Scots-Irish Population
Most originally came to colonies as indentured servants
Couldn't afford the best land
"Buffers" b/t Native Americans and plantations
Difficult to move goods to market
Far from government
Relatively lawless; very violent
Somewhat self-governed (more democratic)
Potential for westward expansion (more economic potential)
Chesapeake Colonies
New England Colonies
The Middle Colonies
Southern Colonies
Governor of VA for 30+ years
Wanted to remain friendly with Native Americans
Son of wealthy English aristocrat
Berkley's cousin
Seat on the VA Council
Wants ALL Native Americans driven out or killed
Bacon's Rebellion (1675-1676)
Problems in VA:
Tobacco prices collapse
Berkley viewed as corrupt
Native American raid kills two settlers
Settlers demand action; Berkley builds forts..Bacon thinks this is not enough
Bacon raises his own militia (with people of all races and social status...largely lower class) and attacks Native Americans (but the wrong ones....)
July 30, 1676: Bacon issues his Declaration of the People
Berkley=terrible and corrupt
September 19, 1676: Bacon et al burn Jamestown to the ground
October 26, 1676: Bacon dies of dysentery
Significance of Bacon's Rebellion
Berkley recalled to England
Return to status quo re: voting rights, land qualifications
Ruling class alarmed
Transition from indentured servitude to race-based slavery
White indentured servants could own slaves when contract over
Why colonize?
Trade, Money, Expand Influence
Triangular Trade
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