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Sweden's Population Policies

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by

Luke Zhang

on 8 December 2015

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Transcript of Sweden's Population Policies

Scandinavian country in Northern Europe

Borders with Norway and Finland

3rd largest country by area in the EU

Later Policies
1970s-Present
The Problem
1900-1935
Early Action
1935-1940
The Issues Return
~1970s
Future Predictions
Sweden
Immigration!
~1900-Present
Things to Take Away
The Overall Effects
Pros and Cons of Sweden's Policies
Sweden's Population Policies
Total fertility rate dropped from over 4 to 1.7
Opinion:
Why?
Some attributed lower birth rates to the contamination of modern social ideas and the erosion of women's traditional homemaker role
The Turning Point
Destined for population decline
reduced productivity
reduced standard of living
The rich should have more children, not the poor
Social reform is the solution to Sweden's dwindling fertility rate
eg. Free medical care, free school lunches, child benefits, etc.
World War I and The Great Depression deterred families from wanting to have children
Reality:

Population: 9 747 355
Crude Birth Rate: 11.9
Crude Death Rate: 9.2
Total Fertility Rate: 1.86
Male Life Expectancy: 80.4
Female Life Expectancy: 84.1
Immigration rate: 13.2
Emigration rate: 5.3
85% of population in urban areas

Population Statistics
Low birth rate
Smaller dependent population
High percentage of the population is economically active
Women have a higher life expectancy than men
Population Growth, Sweden, 1960-2009
In 1935, Prime Minister Per Albin Hansson appointed a Royal Population Commission of which Gunnar Myrdal was the leading member.
The commission produced a series of detailed reports that were followed by legislation in 1937–38

Legalization of contraception
Prohibited dismissing women from employment for reasons of marriage, pregnancy or childbearing
Financial support for housing large families
Prenatal care and subsidized delivery
Maternity bonus
Marriage loans
Women given 12-week maternity leave
The Policies
Total fertility rate went up from 1.7/1.8 to ~2.5 between 1940 to 1945. However, it fell back down to ~2.2, where it largely remained until the late 1960s
Spike in CBR, peaking at around 21 in 1945
Somewhat unclear how much was caused by the economic resurgence after the great depression, and how much was caused by social policies
The Effects
Pros
Cons
Immigration increased and has generally been higher than emigration since WWI
1952, the Nordic countries signed a trade agreement, establishing open work borders between them
Led to increased hiring of migrant workers
Continued until 1967, when the saturation of the labor market encouraged the government to tighten immigration controls
Since early 1970s, the majority of immigrants have been refugees

Socioeconomic incentives should keep the fertility rate relatively stable barring dire economic circumstances
High immigration rate should lead to further population increase, and balance out the aging population
Funding for Swedish language courses as well as bilingual education
System of public support for immigrant associations
Anti-discrimination legislation
Housing programs for new immigrants
Provisions for dual citizenship
Immigrants have been eligible for welfare benefits along with the native Swedish population.
Accommodation
Voluntary
Improvement of social policy
Fertility rates has increased
High immigration rates results in population increase
Burdens on the welfare system
Increased number of immigrants leads to integration difficulties
High taxes required to maintain social policies
Government-subsidized daycare
System of child allowances
1050 SEK/month until child reaches 16 (201,600 SEK total, or 23,183 USD)
Extra family supplement which increases with each further child.

Parental Leave
Other Benefits
Each parent is entitled to 240 of the 480 days of paid parental leave. 60 days reserved for each parent.
For 390 of the 420 days, parents are entitled to 80% of their normal pay (up to an annual ceiling of 32000 euros)
Parents have the right to reduce working hours by 25% until the child turns eight
Did The Policies Work?
Not much more than the previous ones did
But then why is Sweden's Population Increasing?
But how does Sweden Compare to the Rest of Europe?
Has one of the highest total fertility rates in Europe.
Neighboring Scandinavian countries have high fertility rates relative to the rest of Europe as well.
Second highest PGR in Europe
One of the highest percentages of foreign-born residents, with 15.4% of the population in compared to an average of 6.5% across the EU.
Third highest net migration rate in Europe whereas natural increase rate is sixth in Europe.

Fairly Well
Developed export-orientated country
GNI per capita - $61 600
GDP per capita - $58 887

Economy
Energy crisis which lead to worldwide recession brought down total fertility rate
Women became more integrated into the working society leading to increased difficulty to combine a working life with parenthood
Increased access to contraceptive methods also brought down total fertility rates
Crisis in the Population Question
by Gunnar and Alva Myrdal
Main industries:
Motor vehicles, telecommunications, etc.
Traditionally a modern agricultural economy
Today develops engineering, steel, pulp, industries, etc.
First Introduction of Policies
Energy Crisis
First Population Policy
Second Population Policy
WWI
Great Depression
Full transcript