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A presentation of the structure of the HIV-virus, how it infects host cells and ideas of a cure

Lukas Dahlgren

on 15 June 2018

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Transcript of HIV

Human immunodeficiency virus
Infects other lymfocytes
by "budding"

Type I Interferon Is a Powerful Inhibitor of in Vivo HIV-1 Infection and Preserves Human CD41
T Cells from Virus-Induced Depletion in SCID Mice Transplanted with Human Cells
Caterina Lapenta, Stefano M. Santini, Enrico Proietti, Paola Rizza, Mariantonia Logozzi, Massimo Spada,
Stefania Parlato, Stefano Fais, Paula M. Pitha and Filippo Belardelli
Type 1 Interferon (IFN)

Signaling molecule

Warns nearby cells
A blessing or a curse?
Inhibitory effects in vitro

Can inhibit the proliferation of T-cells

HIV induces the production of IFN
Study in vivo
SCID (Severe Combined ImmunoDeficiency) mice transplanted with human cells
INF AZT control
Powerful inhibitor of HIV-1

More effective than AZT

Stimulates anti-HIV-1 response
Homotypic bivalent binding is not possible for HIV
These guys change - QUICKLY
Engineers of immune response
Produces Antibodies
Polyreactivity increases the apparent affinity of anti-HIV antibodies by heteroligation
Troops of immune response
Coordinate and carry out counter offensive
Hugo Mouquet, Johannes F. Scheid, Markus J. Zoller, Michelle Krogsgaard, Rene G. Ott, Shetha Shukair
HIV-RNA is prone to mutation!
Heteroligation - Indicates that one antibody is binding two different antigens
Primary response peaks c:a 20 days after infection
Polyreactive antibodies bind to secondary structure
Low affinity binding
Tramnsmembrane protein (CXCR4 or CKR5)
HIV recognices the CD4 receptor
Anatomy of the retrovirus HIV
wo copies of single-stranded RNA
3 Enzymes
reverse transcriptase
Protective capsid
lipoprotein layer derived from host cells membrane
Any studies on this?
RNA is transcribed into DNA with
Double helix DNA is formed
Viral DNA is integrated into
host chromosome with

Necessary proteins are made when RNA is

"the existence of heteroligation and its contribution to anti-HIV antibody affinity suggests that mimicking the low-density viral antigens encountered during natural infection should be considered as a means to enhance anti-HIV immunization."
Budding: Virion leaves the cell encoating itself with part of the host's membrane

matures the virion after budding has occured

Average life-span of host cell
after infection: 2.2 days

"Antibodies specific for conserved regions of the HIV spike protein have the ability to neutralize the virus and prevent infection in nonhuman primates"
Parts of gp-spikes are highly conserved
glycoprotein spike
Two transmembrane proteins
Low density of surface spikes
B-cells tend to favour homotypic antibodies
Antibodies targeting conserved regions are rare
polyreactive - binds to many different epitopes
Implications for vaccine design
promote polyreactivity
and heteroligation
Immune response
Carried out by two types of cells
Up to 105 times/day
HIV destroys the immune system
by killing it and crippling it
Infection of T-Helpers
Helper cells secrete signal proteins to activate killer cells

HIV may inhibit this secretion
Full transcript