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HIV

A presentation of the structure of the HIV-virus, how it infects host cells and ideas of a cure
by

Lukas Dahlgren

on 15 June 2018

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Transcript of HIV

Human immunodeficiency virus
Integrase
Infects other lymfocytes
by "budding"
Another
approach

Type I Interferon Is a Powerful Inhibitor of in Vivo HIV-1 Infection and Preserves Human CD41
T Cells from Virus-Induced Depletion in SCID Mice Transplanted with Human Cells
Caterina Lapenta, Stefano M. Santini, Enrico Proietti, Paola Rizza, Mariantonia Logozzi, Massimo Spada,
Stefania Parlato, Stefano Fais, Paula M. Pitha and Filippo Belardelli
Type 1 Interferon (IFN)
Cytokine


Signaling molecule


Warns nearby cells
A blessing or a curse?
Inhibitory effects in vitro

Can inhibit the proliferation of T-cells

HIV induces the production of IFN
Study in vivo
SCID (Severe Combined ImmunoDeficiency) mice transplanted with human cells
INF AZT control
Results
Powerful inhibitor of HIV-1

More effective than AZT

Stimulates anti-HIV-1 response
Homotypic bivalent binding is not possible for HIV
These guys change - QUICKLY
B-cells:
Engineers of immune response
Produces Antibodies
Polyreactivity increases the apparent affinity of anti-HIV antibodies by heteroligation
T-cells
Troops of immune response
Coordinate and carry out counter offensive
Hugo Mouquet, Johannes F. Scheid, Markus J. Zoller, Michelle Krogsgaard, Rene G. Ott, Shetha Shukair
HIV-RNA is prone to mutation!
Heteroligation - Indicates that one antibody is binding two different antigens
Primary response peaks c:a 20 days after infection
Polyreactive antibodies bind to secondary structure
Low affinity binding
Spike
Tramnsmembrane protein (CXCR4 or CKR5)
HIV recognices the CD4 receptor
CD4
Anatomy of the retrovirus HIV
T
wo copies of single-stranded RNA
3 Enzymes
reverse transcriptase
protase
integrase
Protective capsid
lipoprotein layer derived from host cells membrane
Any studies on this?
RNA is transcribed into DNA with
reverse-transcriptase
Double helix DNA is formed
Viral DNA is integrated into
host chromosome with
integrase

Necessary proteins are made when RNA is
translated

"the existence of heteroligation and its contribution to anti-HIV antibody affinity suggests that mimicking the low-density viral antigens encountered during natural infection should be considered as a means to enhance anti-HIV immunization."
Budding: Virion leaves the cell encoating itself with part of the host's membrane

Protease
matures the virion after budding has occured

Average life-span of host cell
after infection: 2.2 days

HIV
"Antibodies specific for conserved regions of the HIV spike protein have the ability to neutralize the virus and prevent infection in nonhuman primates"
Parts of gp-spikes are highly conserved
glycoprotein spike
Two transmembrane proteins
Low density of surface spikes
B-cells tend to favour homotypic antibodies
Antibodies targeting conserved regions are rare
polyreactive - binds to many different epitopes
Implications for vaccine design
promote polyreactivity
and heteroligation
Immune response
Carried out by two types of cells
Up to 105 times/day
HIV destroys the immune system
by killing it and crippling it
Infection of T-Helpers
Helper cells secrete signal proteins to activate killer cells

HIV may inhibit this secretion
Full transcript