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Calvin Brainard Cady- Music Education:An Outline
Transcript of Calvin Brainard Cady- Music Education:An Outline
An Outline Organization of Text Cady Lays Foundation Calvin Brainerd Cady Truthful Origins Prelude to Genesis of Music Ed: An Outline "Primal Problem of Education"
lack of spiritual consciousness, truthfulness and simplicity
"sham work" of music educators
narrowness of scope
Lift music from the slough
Improvement of mechanical, uninspired performances
Necessity in absolving music education from a purely external cognitive experience Calvin Brainerd Cady Anticipation:
Class instrumental instruction
Use of folk and art songs Published 1902,
Clayton F. Summy Company: Chicago, IL Educational Background 1870- Oberlin College Preparatory
1872- Oberlin Conservatory of Music
1874- Leipzig Conservatory of Music
-studied piano, organ, counterpoint b. June 21, 1851 in Barry, IL. Teaching Career 1874-1880 Oberlin Conservatory
1880-8 University of Michigan at Ann Arbor
1888-96 Chicago Conservatory of Music
1907-13 Teacher's College, Columbia University
1913-28 Est. Music-Education School in Portland,OR
Taught at Cornish School in Seattle, WA II. Awakening of music conception and expression
III. Rhythmic Initiative
IV. The pianoforte and music expression
V. Written Representation of Melodic Progression
VI. Analysis of Tonality and Written Signs
VIII. Rhythmic Analysis and Notation
X. Elementary Understanding of melodic form
XI. Perception and conception of minor mode
XIII. Relation of parents to child and teacher Samples of outline chapters Awakening of Music Conception and Expression Object I- To awaken the child to the consciousness of his capacity to conceive- to form in thought- and express music.
Find out what the child loves, awaken the imagination
Lead child to sing its own melodic conception of poetic thought
Teacher's role (p. 11)
Give melodies to the child to which he/she shall construct meaning through poetic stanzas.
Object II- To develop a pure voicing of melody.
Allowing students to explore the boundaries between the speaking and singing voice.
Coda- The teacher must use song-material from every available source, a multitude of cultures, a variety of rhythm, complexity, Object II- To awaken rhythmic perception and conception
Teacher silently swings rhythm with one hand
Students create rhythmic pictures
Coda- Incidentally, this is first lesson in technique, though this should never be uttered to the child. Rhythmic Initiative Melodic Conception at the Keyboard Object- To discover relation of the keyboard to melodic movement
Idea of up and down progression NOT to be suggested
Let child find sense of melodic progression
If 'great hesitation'... Written Representation of Melody/Rhythm Object I- Further development of the consciousness of melodic progress.
Indicate pitches upon staff, omitting words
To be sung by child, transcribed by teacher
Object II- To develop consciousness of rhythmic progression
Hum melody for child, emphasizing important syllable
Student will unconsciously recognize verse-rhythm Analysis of Tonality and Written Signs Object II- To develop the perception of individuality of tones (melodic incidents) or tonality (key).
Study the doh feeling in many well-known melodies until it is easily recognized
Conception/Perception THEN musical term.
Explore closely related tones (ray, ti) then chordally related tones (mi, sol)
Object III- To develop an understanding of melodic notation
Student chooses a line on staff to represent doh
Child sings melody while writing
Clef, key signature and accidentals unnecessary at first
Singing in legato, to represent wholly conceived musical thoughts
Writing should rhythmically represent changing of pitch Conceptualizing Pulse and Measure Object II- Develop understanding of correlated modes of rhythm (pulse and measure)
Swinging- p. 41
Naming of strong and weak pulses (traa, taa)
Object III- The understanding of rhythmic notation
Addition of stems
Barlines to represent strong pulses (traa) The Teacher Necessary Qualifications: Musicianship
Broadest Preparation in Education
Capacities of Thought Pedagogic Artist: Freedom in Application
Avoidance of Denegration
Flexibility/Adaptability Role of Teacher in Classroom
Love of music MUST begin with the student's (not teacher's) impulse and desire for music and art
Suggestions rather than FORCE
Allowance of trial and error
Teacher responds to needs and desires of students
Musical thought as representation of uniqueness
Communication and expression are augmented by participation and cooperation in a group 1896-1901- University of Chicago-Dewey Laboratory School Calvin Brainerd Cady serves as Director of Music Education
May Taylor and Miss Whiting were teachers
Music Education: An Outline, was therefore a reflective text which summarized the implementation of his method at the Dewey School Characteristics of Music Education at Dewey School Compared to Others Emphasis on Rote Singing-
Belief that rote singing allowed for musical expression immediately without interference through complex notation systems
Implementation of Instrumental Music
Piano studies from beginning
Instrumental Instruction for "tone-deaf" students
In particular, song composition was a hugely progressive activity of the time
Not until 1920's did music education writ large take on creative endeavors Make children's musical expression the idealization of their daily activities.
That is, musical expression represented the culmination, idealization and highest point of refinement in ALL the work children were engaged in
Emphasis on multicultural acceptance, inclusion of folk song Uniqueness of Dewey School Music Education 1893 1960's 1906 Cady encourages 'Swinging' and other rhythmic body activities Insists on importance of class instrumental instruction Practice of multisensory approaches- (rhythmic and melodic pictures, analogies to represent abstract musical concepts) Concept-centered music education Conception-based music education- Music as representation of inner thoughts and sounds Emile Jaques-Dalcroze Dalcroze first publishes complete method of rhythmic body activities Early 20th Century- Post WWI C.B. Cady Renewed interest in concept-centered music education Allows for renewed interest in concepts of: 1970's Kodaly Suzuki Orff Multisensory approaches gain popularity with Edwin E. Gordon's method of "Auditation" 1980's Limits of Artifact Complexity of Conception-Expression Method "Simplicity" of Outline Misleading
Theory Required Normal Courses
Inadequate Instructional Procedures Practical Concerns Methods ideal for maximum of 4-5 students
Program de-emphasized formal study of music
Few students went on to acquire formal music education
Program required the ability of students to speak in the same language of instruction
Method requires DAILY instruction for 15-20 minutes
The first book alone, "monophony" requires at least 2 years to complete.
Conceptive understanding MUST be mastered before students attempt another concept. This scaffolding based on mastery tends to elongate the music edcuation process . Disclaimers of
Music Education: An Outline NOT a Method- Logical development of subject matter NOT a Philosophy or Principle Systems of rhythmic, harmonic and melodic thought, philosophies and principles of technical development and expression, educational and pedagogic philosophy are NOT the purpose of this text, though it is employed in that way IS an Outline of Subject-Matter Musical thought and education simply in its most elementary aspect Physical Copy Organization- Why Blank Pages? Chapter
Coda Evoke Children's Interest in Musical Activities Teacher As Assistant Encourage Creativity/Cultivate Cooperation Unanswered Questions A Change in Perspective Music Education as Reflective Text:
Table of Contents
Teacher Education Syllabi (?)
Dewey's Influence on Cady
Differences in Opinion (?) What was the significance of Cady's departure from the Dewey Laboratory School?
How or could Cady's outline be implemented in music education today? What are its modern limits?
What knowledge does Cady's method assume? Can students be taught to think about music?
How could Cady's method be modified to fit expectations of assessment in modern schools? Works Cited Cady, Calvin B. (1902) Music Education: An Outline.
Boston: Stanhope Press.
Shiraishi, F. (1995) Music Education at the Dewey School,
1896-1904. The Bulletin of Historical Research in
Music Education, 17(1), 1-18.
Shiraishi, F. (1999) Calvin Brainerd Cady: Thought and
Feeling in the Study of Music. Journal of Research in
Music Education, 47(2), 150-162.