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Copy of Chapter 17 Restructuring the Postwar World

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Paul McIsaac

on 14 February 2014

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Transcript of Copy of Chapter 17 Restructuring the Postwar World

The Meeting at Yalta
- U.S., Britain, and Soviet Union attended the meeting
~Germany was split into "zones of occupation"
~Germany would have to pay the Soviet Union for their losses of life and property
- Soviet Union agreed to join in the fight against Japan
- Stalin promised free elections
The United Nations
- To Protect the members against aggression
- Based in New York City, New York
- Consisted of a general assembly
- Security counsel
eleven member body
held real power to investigate and settle disputes
five permanent members able to veto security counsel action
Soviet Union
- Ignored the Yalta conference
- made communist governments
- Meeting to discuss this:
Harry S. Truman
Winston Churchill
- Met in Germany
- Stalin refused to allow free elections in eastern Europe
Iron Curtain
The Communistic Soviets in the East
German Democratic Republic
Republic in the West
Federal Republic of Germany
Churchill's phrase- "The Iron Curtain"
Truman Doctrine
Truman Doctrine
Support for countries that resisted communism
Marshall Plan
Provided food, machinery, and other materials to rebuild western Europe
Berlin Airlift
U.S. and Soviet Union held different opinions about Germany
Soviet Union held West Berlin captive
World War 1
World War 2
Cold War
Section 1: Cold War- Super Powers Face Off
Section 2: Communists Take Power in China
Communists vs. Nationalist
World War 2 in China
Mao Zedong
North West China
Mobilized peasants for guerilla warfare against Japanese in northeast
promotes literacy and improve food production which won the loyalty of the peasants.
Jiang Jieshi
Southwestern China
protected form Japanese by mountain ranges
2.5 Million men gathered to fight
U.S. sent them 1.5 billion dollars in aid to fight Japanese but corrupt officials took the money
The Japanese left but the Communists and the Nationalists fough from 1946-1949
The Communists
Well Trained
Supported by Soviet Union
promised to return land to peasants
they gained control and created the People's Republic of China
1950- sign treaty of friendship with the Soviet Union
The Nationalists
Outnumbered the Communists
Aided by the U.S.
They had no popular support
led to losing the war
fled south
retreated to Taiwan and created the Republic of China
The split up intensifies the Cold War
China invaded Tibet
The Dali Lama fled to India
India defends Tibet against Chinese
Mao's Marxist Socialism
Agrarian Reform Law of 1950
Mao seized the holdings of the landlords (killing millions of them) and divided the land among the peasants
The peasants had to join collective farms
private companies became nationalized
five year plan
high production goals for industry
coal, cement, steel, electricity
Mao's five Year plan is very similar to Stalin's Five Year Plan
Both had collective farms or communes
Both demanded high production rate
Both ended in famine
"Great Leap Forward"
Larger collective farms called communes with the peasants owning nothing

no incentive to work hard because only the state profited from the labor

the famine killed 20 million people
Mao reduced his role in government because of internal disputes and territorial disputes

He also started to move away from Socialist ideas
Red Guards
Made up of high school and college students who started a revolution known as the Cultural revolution
Established society of peasants and workers in which all were equal
no artistic or intellectual activity
Red Guards-
shut down colleges and schools
targeted the people
threatened farm production and closed factories down
Mao admitted in 1968 that the revolution had to stop

Zhou Enlai was a Chinese communist party founder that restored order
This Shows that even high school students can make history and bring change to their country!
Section 3: U.S. containment led to Korean and Vietnam War
WWII ended
Korea became divided
North of the dividing line (38th parallel) Japanese troops surrendered to Soviet forces and created a communist industry

South of the dividing line the Japanese surrendered to American troops and created a non-communist rural area
1949 both the U.S. and the Soviet Union withdrew
The Soviets thought the U.S. would not defend South Korea so they supplied North Korea with tanks, airplanes, and money to conquer the south
This failed due to intervention by the United Nations
Truman helped South Korea defend against North Korea and South Korea asked the U.N. to help also, which they did under the command of General Douglas MacArthur
China felt threatened by the U.S. in Korea so they sent troops into North Korea

China pushed the U.N. and the South Korean forces out of North Korea and captured Seol

MacArthur wanted nuclear war but Truman said no because he didn't want to have another world war

MacArthur took his case to Congress and the Press, which resulted in Truman removing him from his position
U.N. Forces drove back signed cease-fire agreement (4 Million people died in this war)
North Korea:
communist dictator Kim II Sung established collective farms, and heavy industry, and built up the military
Then Kim Jong II developed nuclear weapons but created economic problems
South Korea:
Prospered with the help of U.S. aid
developed industry and expanded foreign trade
dictators ruled
1987 adoption of democratic constitution with free election
highest economic growth rates in the 1980's to '90s
Vietnam War
Ho Chi Minh turned to Communists to revolt against the French
the French just jailed them and sentenced Ho to death but Ho fled to exile and returned in 1941 a year after the Japanese held control of Vietnam
Vietminh Leauge
a group that fought for the independence of Vietnam
forced Japanese out and kept fighting France
used hit and run tactics
eventually France doubted that it was worth all the money and lives
forced French surrender to Ho and Dien bien Phu- 1954
Domino Theory-Eisenhower
After defeat of France, an International peace conference met in Geneva where they divided at 17 degrees north latitude
In the North-Ho Chi Minh's Communist forces
In the South-U.S. and France-anti-communist Ngo anh Diem-dictator but the Vietcong (guerrillas) began to take over and assassinated Diem
The U.S. President Lyndon Johnson told Congress that North Vietnam patrol boats attacked two U.S. destroyers (half a million soldiers already in combat in Korea) so the U.S. got even more involved:
U.S. soldiers fought guerilla war in unkown jungle terrain
South Vietnam found the U.S. government unpopular
Vietcong grew in popularity, Ho Chi Minh and China and Soviet Union sent supplies to Vietcong so the U.S. turned to bombs which made South Vietnam hate the U.S. more and Richard Nixon withdrew his troops
Vietnamization- massive bombing on North Vietnam bases and supply routes but North Korea took hold of South Korea two years after the U.S. withdrew in 1973
Communist rebels held Cambodia under siege
Khmer Rouge
Communist rebels known as Khmer Rouge met under their leader Pol Pot
Slaughtered 2 million people (1/4 of the population)
1978 Vietnamese invaded and they set up a less repressive government
Fighting continued
1993 under pressure from UN Cambodia set up a democratic constitution
Post-war Vietnam
when the north Vietnamese won they kept a tight hold over the south
"reeducation camps" to teach communist thought
nationalized industries and strictly controlled business
renamed capital Ho Chi Minh City
1.5 million flee Vietnam from Communist oppression
over 200,000 died at sea
about 70,000 settled in the U.S. of Canada
1995 U.S. normalized relations with Vietnam
Section 4:
Soviet Policy in Eastern Europe and China
After Stalin less extreme ideas
Satillite countries became somewhat more independent
Destalinization and Rumblings of Protests
Nikita Khrushchev took power
Hungary protests, "From the youngest child to the oldest man, no one wants communism."
Imre Nagy tried to form a new government by promising free elections and demanding Soviet troops to leave
In response, the Soviets invaded quickly and Nagy was executed
Section 5: The Cold War Thaws
The Revolt in Czechoslovakia
Khrushchev lost prestige as result of the Cuban Missile Crisis
voted out of power and replaced by Leonid Brezhnev
basic freedoms taken away soon after
Czech leader Alexander Dubcek was creating socialism with a "human face" in his reforms
ideas bloomed in the Prague Spring
August 1968 invaded by Warsaw Pact nations
The Soviet-Chinese Split
Mao and Stalin signed 30 year peace treaty
quickly fell out of favor as complications arose
China tired of being outdone by Moscow
spread their own form of communism throughout other countries in Africa and Asia
Disputes over the border
"maintained a fragile peace"
From Brinkmanship to Detente
Brinkmanship breaks down
After the American spy plane U-2 was captured, tension arose
Cuban missile crisis
extremely close to world war
created tension
Lyndon Johnson becomes president
The U.S. turns to Detente
Nixon's policy came out of realpolitik
Soviet and U.S. agreed to reduce tension
Nixon Visits Communist Powers
Became the 1st U.S. president to visit communist China
U.S., Soviet Union, and China met
After series of meetings called the Strategic Arms Limitation Talks (SALT) Nixon and Brezhnev signed the SALT I treaty
5 year agreement limited to 1972 levels the number of intercontinental ballistic and submarine missiles each country could have
1975, 33 nations joined to detente, the Helsinki Accord
Collapse at Detente
Jimmy Carter concerned over harsh treatment of protestors in Soviet Union
Salt II agreement signed in 1979
After Soviets invaded Afghanistan it was no longer ratified
Reagan takes an Anti-Communist Stance
moved from detente by increasing defense spending, putting both economic and military pressure on Soviet Union
put into effect Strategic Defense Initiative
1. What caused the break down of the post WWII alliance between the U.S. and Russia?
2. What were some differences between Richard Nixon and Ronald Reagan's beliefs after the Cold War?
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