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Transcript of Middle Ages
Politics: the Senate lost power and
the army became more powerful, some Emperors
were proclaimed by their armies,
not by the Senate as it used to be.
The Roman Civilization was divided in Four
by Diocletian (3rd Century) and re-united by Constantine
and divided again by Theodosius in 395
• Lack of Slaves and plunder because of the Pax
• Inflation and poor harvest
• Problems in the
increase of piracy.
• Decrease of the interest, love and passion
towards Rome by the people
• Migration of barbarians to the frontiers of
• Disloyalty, lack of patriotism because a lost of
confidence, and the economical situation and
Mercenaries in the army to protect the
“Anarchy” in the army, the legions began
to proclaimed their general as emperors.
Decline of patriotism and “romanitas” of
the roman soldiers.
• Incapacity of driven away the barbarian
• The main impact in culture was the
proclamation of Christianity as the official
religion of Rome by Theodosius.
• Rome was divided in
The last Roman emperor, a 14-
year-old boy named Romulus
Augustulus, was ousted by
German forces in 476. After
that, no emperor even
pretended to rule Rome and its
• Odoacer was proclaimed king of Italy in 476.
Visigoths: they rebelled against the
Romans, under the leadership of Alaric,
they invaded Greece, Italy and in 410
AD, plundered Rome. After the death of
Alaric they settle in Gaul.
The Franks: they moved to Gaul,
and defeated the Visigoths, Celts,
Alemanii and the Romans. the king
Clovis and his tribe were baptized.
The Vandals: they moved from
Hispania to Africa, his most famous
king was Genseric, they conquered
Carthage, Sardinia and Sicily, after
the death of Genseric, and they
The Huns: they were the
most barbarous of all, in 446
led by Attila invaded Gaul and
Treves, Metz and other cities,
they were very bellicose and
dangerous, but at the death
of Attila, their power disappear.
The Ostrogoths: In four years, between 489
and 493, Theodoric and the Ostrogoths
destroyed the Kingdom of Odovacar and
-Northern part of Gaul
-with the disorganized
the V century,
-Clovis I ruled and
established a dynasty.
The Islam is the religion of the
• According to Islam, Mohammed
is the last prophet of Allah.
• Islam is regulated by the Shari`a
(revealed law of Allah) is on the
Qur`an, Hadith, and
ijma`(decision of the umma,
community), are the basis of
social, political and economical
life in the Islam.
Shahadah: is a statement
and accepting Mohammad
as God`s messenger and
there is no god but God.
The shahadah is a set
statement normally recited
in Arabic, translated as:
There is no God but Allah,
and Mohammad is the
Prophet of Allah."
• Muslims must pray five time
a day (at dawn, noon, mid-
afternoon, sunset, and
night) Each salat is
performed facing towards
the Kaaba in the Mecca
• Zakat: Is the practice of
charitable giving by
Muslims based on
accumulated wealth, and
is obligatory for all who
are able to do so
Sawn: during the ninth moth
of the Islamic Calendar
(Ramadan), Muslims are only
allowed to eat at night, they
can’t do it when the Sun is
shining. Fasting during
Ramadan is obligatory, but is
forbidden for several groups
for whom it would be very
dangerous and excessively
problematic, for example
travellers, women, old, sick…
Poor: they didn`t have
opportunities and life
of the elite
• Ethnicity: Arabs and
Religion: even that Cristhians, Jews and
Zoroastrians were accepted in the Al-Dar
Islam, they had to pay the Jizyah (tax) and also
their temples cannot be bigger than the
Lepers: they were
discriminated for the disease
and they had to live out side
the walls of cities.
Slaves: they had no rights but
the were treated according
to the Islamic tradition and
also if they convert to the
Islam they could be free
Women: women were seen
as a weak, they cannot leave
the house alone, they
haven`t got the same rights
of a men.
• Science. (Astrology) Some names of the stars,
• History. Ibn Khaldun
• Another important idea in the Islam is the
Jihad, which is the holy war, it is in two level:
• the major against the evil
• the minor against the enemies of Islam.
The crime of heresy was defined as a
deliberate denial of an article of truth of the
Catholic faith, and a public and obstinate
persistence in that alleged error
Although the Inquisition was created to
combat the heretical Cathari and
Waldenses, the Inquisition later extended i
ts activity to include witches, diviners,
blasphemers, and other sacrilegious
The Wake of Juda's Cradle
The Virgin of Nuremberg
The Inquisitional Chairs
The Heretic's Fork
The origins of the great
civilization known as the Byzantine
Empire can be traced to 330 A.D.,
when the Roman emperor Constantine
I dedicated a "new Rome" on the site of the ancient
Greek colony of Byzantium.
How did it survided?
The population of the eastern empire wa
more urbanized than the Latin speaking
Another reason is that, the Eastern Empire
did not paid mercenaries to protect the frontiers.
The impregnable fortress of Constantinople.
The Emperors made a reduction of taxes.
Encourage education and inaugurated the first large-scale codification of the Roman law.
Greek Orthodox Christianity. Eastern Orthodoxy arose as a distinct branch of Christianity after the “Great Schism” of the eleventh century between Eastern and Western Christendom.
Representations of the main
Emperors and Christian`s saints
Use of Domes
Use of mosaics inside and outside the temples
Normally the temples were built using the Greek cross
Use of small bricks
• According to Marc Bloch, Feudalism:
“it is a system in which all aspects of life, not only
political but economical, ecclesiastical and culture
were centred on lordship”
The King: he was the ruler of all
lands, but he gave authority to
a vassal, to control some lands
• The Lord: He was the vassal of
the King, but he had peasants
who worked for him.
The Bishop: in charge of
religion and education, moral
The peasant and serf: The worked
and lived in the lands of the Lord,
they were subjected to the lord`s
control, and owning him certain
dues: services, and payments in
money or in kind.
Vassalage: its the basis of the
feudal system, the vassal received
from a King or lord land, and
authority, but in return he had to
give services and loyalty.
Feud/ fiefdom: lands and
The religion were the basis of
the social life, rules,
• The head of the church is the
bishop of Rome, the Pope,
who claimed to be the Vicar of
• The were independent from
the king or the Lord
• The social life of the medieval people were
around the church
Latin was the language of
• Theocentrism: all aspect
of life were around the
Church and God.
What are crusades?
Expedition to rescue the holy
land from the hand of the
• They were seen as Holy Wars,
and they were encouraged by
Situation of the East
Muslims were attacking the
Byzantines, so the Byzantine
emperor Alexius claimed for
help to the Pope.
Piety, the Pope Urban II (in
the council of Clermont 1095)
encourage the Crusades for
salvation of Christianit
Protection of the holy Land
Jerusalem and holy places for
• Power of the Church
Western Church wanted to
control the Christianity of the
The Crusades contributed to
increase the wealth of the Church
and the power of the Papacy
First schism of Christianity (West
At the end Jerusalem was
captured by the Ottoman
Turks(Muslims) in 1453 led by
Mehmet II and his army
The Crusades afforded an
opportunity for romantic
adventure. The Crusades were
therefore one of the principal
fostering influences of Chivalry.
Contact with the culture of the
East provided a general refining
They were seen as a holy wars
(Christianity – Islam) Christians
defending the Religion against the
There were around 9 – 8 crusades
To defend Christianity and rescue
Holy land (Jerusalem)
Sistema Educativo Saint Clare