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The Craft of Research Ch. 9 and 10

Chapters 9 and 10

Donna Elliott

on 25 January 2018

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Transcript of The Craft of Research Ch. 9 and 10

Chapter Nine:
Assembling Reasons and Evidence
To see if the order of your reasons makes consecutive sense, outline the logical structure of your argument using a "storyboard" (See top of page 131)
The core of an argument=a claim and its support

The set of reasons must be plausible, clear, and in a logical order in your paper
Reason vs. Evidence

"Stricter gun control legislation is needed
because too many people are killed by misuse of their own weapons.
Studies have shown that gun owners and their families three times more likely to be shot during a home invasion than are the perpetrators."
As you formulate your paper, imagine readers asking:

*How do you know that?
*What facts make it true?
Building an Argument:

Good Evidence: strong, solid, bedrock foundation

Bad Evidence: flimsy, weak, thin
Evidence should be


*Record data completely and clearly
*Double check before, during, and after

"In many cases, the sometimes weak application of the gun control law has caused a great number of unnecessary accidents." (not very precise)
Sufficient Evidence

Be careful of not providing enough evidence to cover your claim.


"According to Anderson, 50% of all handgun accidents in the state of Oklahoma are caused by guns being left within the reach of children."


"According to Wikipedia, most gun accidents happen because of lack of training in firearms instruction."

Chapter 10: Acknowledgments and Responses
Acknowledging their imagined presence and bringing in the voices of others establishes a cooperative relationship with readers.
Two kinds of questions readers may ask about your argument:

Intrinsic soundness

Extrinsic soundness
Use the questions on pages 140 and 141 to consider whether your argument acknowledges alternate points of view
In the process of assembling your argument, use these questions to test it as your readers will and then acknowledge and respond to the most important objections.
Acknowledge questions that you can't answer, but respond that
1) the rest of your argument more than balances the flaw
2) more research is needed to find a way around it
3) your argument (though it cannot be accepted fully) offers important insights
Responding to Arguments

Some claim that any strict gun control legislation limits Constitutional rights, but while this may be somewhat true, the lives that could be saved by tighter regulations make such limitations relatively insignificant.
The Vocabulary of Acknowledgment/Response

Introduce it with "despite/regardless of/notwithstanding"

"Regardless of the fact that stricter gun legislation could infringe upon our Constitutional rights..."
Use also:

Although/While/Even though

Even though most home owners claim that their guns offer protection against intruders, evidence shows that they or their family members are much more likely to be shot than an intruder.
Three Predictable Disagreements

1) There are causes in addition to the one you claim.

The increase of gun accidents could also be blamed on the overall prevalence of violence in our society.

Try to predict them in advance of your reader, then explain why you don't consider them as damaging as your reader does.
Readers may not accept your definitions

Define "gun control." What would "stricter" regulations involve?
What the reader really wants to know is....How would these harsher regulations infringe upon civil rights?
Full transcript