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The Roaring '20s
Transcript of The Roaring '20s
1915 movie "Birth of A Nation" glorified the KKK.
In the 1920s membership peaked at about 4 million.
Spread a lot in the Northern and Western parts of the country.
They were against minorities: blacks, Jews, Catholics, Communists, and new immigrants.
They also opposed the teaching of evolution in schools and birth control.
They were strong proponents of prohibition.
They would use large parades and marches to demonstrate, and would also burn crosses. The Changing Culture Scopes Monkey Trial Harlem Renaissance Prohibition The first radio broadcast was on November 20, 1920 by KDKA.
It was done on election day to show the power of the radio.
The idea was brought on by Dr. Frank Conrad, a ham radio operator, who would play music over the radio for his friends.
Westinghouse, the leading radio manufacturer used this idea to come up with the idea for radio programming
This broadcast sparked the start of over 600 broadcasting companies around the country.
Radios were quickly becoming very popular- by 1930 60% of American families owned a radio.
In 1922 the boradcasting companies turned to advertising to help pay for their equipment.
In 1926 the Radio Corporation of America made the first national broadcasting station, NBC. The Roaring '20s Began around the end of World War 1 and lated through the 1930s and centered in Harlem, New York
It was also known as the New Negro Movement
A lot of blacks were migrating to here because of the social, educational, and economic opportunities.
It was a new way of thinking for the black community- more self-assertive, articulate, and racially concious
It raised issues in the black community through art, literature, music, and drama
There was a huge focus on education
Louis Armstrong was one of the great jazz musicians
Langston Hughes was one of the great authors State vs. John T. Scopes
In Dayton, Tennessee July of 1925
John Scopes was a high school biology teacher who was accused of teaching the theaory of evolution
Tennessee had an anti-evolution statute that barred the teaching of this.
It was really a fight between modernists and traditionalists/fundamentalists.
William Jennings Bryan was fighting to banish the teaching of evolution as the prosecutor.
The south was known as the Bible Belt around this time, so they were largely against the theory of evolution.
Scopes was found guity and had to pay a $100 fine. Economic Events Buying on Credit Stock Market Crash Consumerism The Car People were beginning to buy more expensive luxury items, like cars, radios, and refrigerators.
They would put some money down and pay the rest over time.
Buy now, pay later.
They would use installment plans for a fixed payment for a fixed amount of time.
It was a system that was largely based on honesty and trust. At the end of World War I the U.S. needed a new market to sustain its production.
Markets were made available and kept popular by emerging advertising on TV and radio.
The new system of mass-production introduced by Henry Ford greatly contributed to this.
Items that were once seen as a luxury were quickly becoming necessities.
People began to use material possessions to define themselves and others.
American life became more standardized- less regional differences.
Led to a lot of buying on credit. The Radio The younger generation began to challenge the traditional ways of doing things.
Women began drinking in public with men and smoking cigarettes.
Women began wearing shorter more form fitting dresses- flappers.
New dances like the Fox Trot and the Charleston were becoming popular.
Education was becoming more important. the number of high school students mor than doubled in this decade.
People began to follow news stories, actors, and sports more. Stocks had expanded rapidly and many people turned to buying stock. Many of the stocks were bought on the margin though. so there wasnt the money to back them up.
Thy reached a peak in August of 1929.
They began to decline in September though.
Production was down and unemployment was up. This left the stocks in excess.
By October 18 the stocks were really failing.
On October 25, "Black Thursday", over 12 million stocks were traded and panic was setting in.
Investment companies and bankers tried to buy up large amounts of stock to stabilize the markets. This created a small rally for Friday.
By Monday the markets were in free fall.
October 29, 1929, "Black Tuesday", the prices completely fell out.
16 million stocks were traded in 1 day, billions of dollars were lost.
Automobiles were finally becoming affordable for the average person to be able to own.
Mass production that Henry Ford introduced helped to do this. By 1921 his Model T cost only $310.
Soon competing car companies would surpass his inexpensive prices.
They quickly became a necessity rather than a luxury.
People began to move out of cities- quicker and easier to get to work from suburbs.
A lot of highways and other roads were constructed.
The auto industry employed 375,000 workers.
3/4 cars were bought on credit or installment payments. Political Events President Coolidge Red Scare Teapot Dome Scandal 19th Amendment Immigration Occurred in the Harding Administration.
In 1921 Harding had transferred supervision of the naval oil reserve lands from the Navy to the Department of the Interior.
Secretary of the Interior Albert Bacon Fall secretly leased federal oil reserves.
He gave rights to Edward L. Doheny (Pan-American Oil Company) And Henry Sinclair (Mammoth Oil Company)
Fall received large cash gifts from them.
Harding was never implicated in this. He died shortly after. It was passed on June 4, 1919 and ratified on August 18, 1920.
Officially gave women nation-wide the right to vote- some states already had given women the right to vote.
The movement for this right was started back in the 1830s, but was lost in the anti-slavery campaign.
From this women gained more civil jobs in the government.
Although women's suffrage was gained, women have still struggled to be a respected part of the government. America experienced some of the largest immigration in this decade.
Americans were becoming extremely nationalistic.
They didn't like how different the "New Immigrants" were from the "Old Immigrants". They were from Southern and Eastern Europe and Asia. They practiced different religions- Catholic, Jewish. They refused to assimilate. They were illiterate and unskilled.
The Immigration Act of 1924 limited the number of immigrants based on a system of quotas.
Provided immigration visas for only 2% of each nation's population, but excluded all Asian immigrants. Charles Lindbergh's Flight Baseball Silent Films The Charleston Mae West Obscenities A series of bombs targeted the Attorney General, Mitchell A. Palmer's, house in 1919.
He led the campaign against Communists in 1920.
Nicola Sacco and Bartolomeo Vanzetti, known anarchists from Italy, were arrested and charged with robbery and the murder of 2 guards because they were found in the vicinity with guns.
There were prosecuted and easily convicted partly because of the judge's bias against "Reds".
Palmer began many raids on people he deemed dangerous. He deported 249 Russians without probable cause.
He then created the FBI and had them raid suspected anarchists homes, detain labor leaders, and hold about 5,000 citzens without cause or civil liberties, like lawyers.
This largely began because of American's hatred of the Bolshevik Revolution and at this time anything outside of the norm. Americans were very intolerable since the war. "Lucky Lindy"
He was the first to fly over the Atlantic Ocean alone and without stopping.
He left New York on May 20 at 7:52 AM in the Spirit of St. Louis and landed in Paris, France on May 21 at 10:21 PM Paris time.
It took hime 33 and a half hours to travel the 3600 miles.
He was honored with awards, parades, and celebrations.
President Coolidge awarded him with the Congressional Medal of Honor and the Distinguished Flying Cross.
He later became an advocate of nonviolence and Robert H. Goddard's experiments- led to satellite and rocket. Random Works Cited http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/americanexperience/features/general-article/flood-klan/
http://www.historykids.com The 18th amendment prohibiting the sale, manufacture, and distribution of alcohol was passed in 1919.
Prohibition was hated by most.
Gangsterism rose as more and more people began to participate in the illegal manufacture and sales of alcohol, bootlegging.
Violence grew out of the gangsterism and crime- the St. Valentine's Day Massacre.
Al Capone from Chicago was one of the most famous gangsters.
Speakeasies were illegal bars that sprung up for people to drink .
Prohibition was only loosely enforced in most areas.
He was the Vice President for Warren G. Harding.
He took office on August 2nd, 1923 upon hearing the news of Haring's sudden death.
He was a very quiet man, often referred to as "Silent Cal".
He was a very moral man, which was much needed after the corrupt Harding Administration.
He called for isolation in foreign policy and tax cuts in his first message to congress.
He effectively did nothing, but that's just what was needed at the time.
Coolidge ran against John Davis and Robert La Follette in the election of 1924 and was elected.
He became the first president ever use the radio to reach out to the people.
He immediately tackled the high war time taxes. Baseball greatly became popular in this decade.
Attendance to the games grew by over 50% from the 1910s.
Every major league team made a profit.
This popularity was due to the new ballparks, the emergence of sports pages in newspapers, and the popularity of the games being broadcast on the radio.
Baseball stars emerged, like Babe Ruth.
Babe Ruth hit 60 home runs.
Baseball became primarily an evening sport.
A dance that was popularized in the 1920s.
It was danced to jazz music of theHarlem Renaissance.
It was a part o the younger generations new traditions and ways.
The older generations largely did not approve of it.
It was largely characterized by fast footwork and close partner work. Mae West was an actress and playwright.
She took advantage of the newly loosened views on women in the '20s.
In 1926, the first play she wrote was entitled "Sex" and depicted the life of a Montreal prostitute.
She took on the leading role.
A year afte the play came out New York's deputy police commissioner raids her company and charges them with lewdness and corrupting the youth.
She is convicted and serves 10 days in jail.
Another play "The Drag", reworked to be "The Pleasure Man", was the real cause of the origonal raid and induces another raid .
After 14 days of a trial the jury is unable to reacha verdict and the case is dismissed.
By the mid-1920s film was a very big business- capital investment totaled over $2 million.
At this time the country experienced the most film releases ever at about 800 feature films each year.
There were 20 different Hollywood studios to account for this rapid movie making, but the Big Five, Warner Bros, Paramount, MGM, RKO, and Fox, were the top producers- 90%.
People would flock to the movies every week to see the feature films- about 50% of the nation population went weekly.
The theaters grew from sma;; Nickelodeons to large "picture palaces".
Many stars grew out o the film industry and people began to see movies just because that star was in them.
Charlie Chaplin was a big star at this time playing hi staple character, the tramp.