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Learning Disabilities

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Krystal VanDuysen

on 20 January 2015

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Transcript of Learning Disabilities

Learning Disabilities
HISTORY
Agenda:
1. History
- Video
2. Prevalence & Definitions
3. Causes of Learning Disabilities
4. Types of Learning Disabilities
5. Characteristics of Learning Disabilities
6. Diagnosis
7. Success Stories
8. Strategies for Making Classroom Adaptations for Students with Learning Disabilities
9. Activity & Discussion
10. References
Mostly developed
in the
last
50
years
1960'S

LD
is acknowledged by the medical field thanks to a group of parents and Dr. Samuel Kirk.
Public schools start getting involved
by separating students who are having difficulty from their classmates in an effort to provide individual instruction.
1970's
The first federal law that recognized students with LD is passed:
Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA)
(then known as Education for All Handicapped Children Act.)
The method used to identify LD is to measure the difference between a student’s ability and potential (such as an intelligence, or IQ test) and his or her academic achievement

(IQ-achievement discrepancy).
The National Center for Learning Disabilities
(known then as the Foundation for Children with Learning Disabilities) is founded by Pete and Carrie Rozelle.
1980's
The education community works to determine an improved way to meet the needs of students with LD.
Federal law begins providing opportunities for parents to take advantage of
early intervention services
for children who show signs of a learning disability.
1990's
LD remains as the category which serves the greatest amount of students by the IDEA
Educators create

The Response to Intervention (RTI) as a better way to diagnose for LD

as they realize that the IQ-achievement discrepancy method of identifying LD is a “wait to fail” model that catches LD too late.
RTI is a proactive approach that is used before a student is referred for special education evaluation. RTI monitors a student’s progress and determines what types of intervention work and what other strategies and supports might help.
The first Roper-Starch Poll on LD shows that more than 60% of respondents incorrectly associate LD with physical disabilities, mental problems, emotional disabilities and ADHD.
2000's
Parents are now more encouraged as supporters
Assistive technologies and universal design for learning
are discovered to help students with LD succeed while benefiting all students. (i.e. apps.)
Many famous and successful individuals go public with learning disabilities
Roper Polls conducted in 2000, 2005 and 2010 reveal an improvement in public understanding of LD. Now the greater majority believe that people with LD are those who process words and information differently but are just as intelligent as most other children. However, there are still misunderstandings about LD.
Adults with LD get more attention
NCLD’s 2012 Public Perception Survey illustrates the need for better education about the causes and treatments of LD and a better understanding of the rights of people with LD in the workplace.
WHAT IS A LEARNING DISABILITY?
Learning Disabilities (LD) is a general term describing a group of learning problems.
According to the US Department of Education, approximately 4.3% of all school-age children are classified as having learning disabilities.
PEOPLE WITH LEARNING DISABILITIES MAY FACE CHALLENGES WITH:
- Listening or paying attention
- Speaking
- Reading or writing
- Doing math

COMMON TYPES OF LEARNING DISABILITIES
DYSCACLULIA
Area of difficulty: Math skills
Symptoms include trouble with:
Computation
Remembering math facts
Concepts of
time
and
money
Example: Difficulty learning to count by 2's, 3's, 4's, poor mental math skills, problems with
spatial
directions
DYSGRAPHIA
Area of difficulty:
Written
expression
Symptoms include trouble with:
Handwriting
Spelling
Composition
Example: Illegible handwriting, difficulty
organizing
ideas for writing
DYSLEXIA
Area of difficulty:
Processing
language
Symptoms include trouble with:
Reading
Writing
Spelling
Example: Confusing letter names and sounds, difficulties
blending
sounds into words, slow rate of reading, trouble remembering after reading text

AUDITORY PROCESSING DISORDER
Non-Verbal Learning Disabilities
Area of difficulty: Discrepancy between
higher
verbal skills and
weaker
motor, visual-spatial and social skills
Symptoms include trouble with:
Recognizing nonverbal cues such as
facial
expression or body language
Shows poor psycho-motor coordination
Using fine motor skills: tying shoes, writing, using scissors
Examples: May exhibit
clumsiness
such as bumping into others, difficulty coping with changes in transitions
VISUAL PROCESSING DISORDER
Area of difficulty: Interpreting
visual
information
Symptoms include trouble with:
Reading
Writing
Math
Example: Difficulty distinguishing
letters
like "h" and "n"
WHAT CAUSES LEARNING DISABILITIES?
The specific causes of LD's remain
unknown
, but are believed by many to be related to
brain
function.
Possible causes that have been theorized include:
organic (differences in the development of the brain)
genetic (heredity)
environmental
(poor diet & nutrition, exposure to toxins such as alcohol, smoke, & cocaine prenatally or postnatally)
CHARACTERISTICS OF LEARNING DISABILITIES
Language & Literacy
Many students experience challenges in both
expressive
and
receptive
language including:
Discriminating between sounds
Misunderstanding grammar
Understanding subtleties in language
"Word finding" abilities or recovering appropriate words when needed
Many students with LD's also lack
phonemic awareness
(awareness that words are made up of individual speech sounds)
Mathematics
Approximately
2/3
of students with learning disabilities have mathematics disabilities
Students may portray challenges in learning math related
facts
rules
procedures
& managing money

Attention & Memory
Many students with LD's may have a hard time
staying on task.
Many students who have a key disability areas such as learning disabilities, emotional disabilities, or intellectual disabilities may also have
ADHD.
Numerous students also have difficulties in
long and short term memory
&
semantic memory
(working memory for verbal information).

DYSPRAXIA
Area of difficulty: fine
motor
skills
Symptoms include trouble with:
Coordination
Manual dexterity
Example: Trouble with scissors, buttons, drawings
Thinking & Reasoning
Thinking & reasoning difficulties may be portrayed in students with LD's.
An area that may be difficult for most students is
abstract reasoning.
This may result in students using
extended time
to learn new tasks and other information.
Other areas of difficulty may include:
organizing thinking, drawing conclusions, over-rigidity in thinking, and a lack of effective strategies for problem solving.
DIAGNOSIS
Diagnosis for a LD can be difficult.
Involves testing, history taking, and
observation
by a professional.
Even experts mix up learning disabilities with ADHD and other

behavioral
problems sometimes.
Types of specialists who may be able to test for and diagnose learning disabilities include:
◾Clinical psychologists
◾School psychologists
◾Child psychiatrists
◾Educational psychologists
◾Developmental psychologists
Neuropsychologist

Psychometrist
Occupational therapist (tests sensory disorders that can lead to learning problems)
Speech and language therapist

ADD/ADHD
Area of difficulty: Concentration and
focus
Symptoms include trouble with:
Over-activity
Distractibility
Impulsivity
Example: Can't sit still, loses interest quickly, daydreams
LIVING WITH A LEARNING DISABILITY
Dyscalculia
Dyslexia
Dyslexia
ADHD
Dyspraxia
ADHD
Dyslexia & Dyscalculia
Dyslexia
Strategies for Making Classroom Adaptations for Students with Learning Disabilities
Dyslexia
Provide a quiet area for activities like reading, answering comprehension questions
Use books on tape
Use books with large print and big spaces between lines
Provide a copy of lecture notes
Don’t count spelling on history, science or other similar tests
Allow alternative forms for book reports
Allow the use of a laptop or other computer for in-class essays
Use multi-sensory teaching methods
Teach students to use logic rather than rote memory
Present material in small units
Dysgraphia
Suggest use of word processor
Avoid chastising student for sloppy, careless work
Use oral exams
Allow use of tape recorder for lectures
Allow the use of a note taker
Provide notes or outlines to reduce the amount of writing required
Reduce copying aspects of work (pre-printed math problems)
Allow use of wide rule paper and graph paper
Suggest use of pencil grips and /or specially designed writing aids
Provide alternatives to written assignments (video-taped reports, audio-taped reports)

Dyscalculia
Allow use of fingers and scratch paper
Use diagrams and draw math concepts
Provide peer assistance
Suggest use of graph paper
Suggest use of colored pencils to differentiate problems
Work with manipulatives
Draw pictures of word problems
Use mnemonic devices to learn steps of a math concept
Use rhythm and music to teach math facts and to set steps to a beat
Schedule computer time for the student for drill and practice

Dyspraxia
Let's Review...
A learning disability is not just a "difficulty" with learning.
It is a neurological disorder that affects the brain’s ability to receive, process, store and respond to information.
Problems with: Listening or paying attention, Speaking, Reading or writing and/or doing math.
Causes could include problems related to brain function, organic, heredity and environmental factors
There are a variety of characteristics of individuals with LD which may be prevalent in some people and not others
6 Types: Dyslexia, Dysparaxia, Dyscalculia, Dyphasia/Aphasia, Non-verbal and Auditory Processing disorder.
Strategies include making adaptations to the physical environment, instructional materials, instruction, & evaluation procedures.
References
Classroom Scenario
(AND RELATED DISORDERS)
Area of difficulty: Interpreting
auditory
information
Symptoms include trouble with:
Language
development
Reading
Examples: Difficulty anticipating how a speaker will
end
a sentence
Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder
ADHD and LD are not the same thing, but ADHD certainly can
interfere
with learning and behavior.
One out of three
people with LD have ADHD
Difficulty staying focused and paying attention, difficulty controlling behavior, and hyperactivity
Metacognitive Abilities
Study Skills, Learning Strategies, Organizational Strategies
Metacognition (knowledge of one's own learning and understanding) is lacking in many student with LD's.
This may affect the students:
ability to study
plan ahead
utilize strategies that work for them
SOCIAL-EMOTIONAL FUNCTIONING
1/3- 1/2
of students with LD may also display problems in with social or emotional functioning.
This includes but is not limited to:
anxiety & depression
low self-esteem & self-awareness
Individuals with LD's are more inclined to being
judged
than the population as a whole.
Generalization
& Application
Often times, students with LD's have a hard time generalizing
learned
information to
new
situations.
Some students may be able to understand and apply content area information in a
special education
setting but not be able to apply to
real life
or
general education
classrooms.
Adapt the Physical Environment
Rearrange seating positions near students or personnel who can aid students and help focus their attention
Arrange desks so they face away from any distractions
Organize the classroom with special places for books, notebooks, art supplies, etc.
Identify clear procedures in the beginning of the year such as:
how to enter the room (Do Nows/Journal)
first, second and third thing to be done when entering the room
bathroom or nurse breaks
safety drills (fire, lockdown)
how to exit the room (Ticket out the door/Exit Ticket)
Adapt Instructional Materials
For students who may have difficulty with literacy, utilize hands-on learning strategies, PowerPoint/Prezi, video clips, computer simulations, partner reading, etc.
Use direct instruction to teach students how to schedule time, how to use a homework planner, and how to use effective study skills
Adapt Instruction
Use structured and clearly presented lessons with student goals and progress in mind
Make expectations very detailed and explicit
Ask students to repeat directions and materials in their own words to ensure understanding
Periodically review previously learned material
Utilize peer tutors to support learning
Use research-based literacy practices
Adapt Evaluation Procedures
Adapt test formats (multiple choice, matching, true/false)
Practice taking tests with students
Teach test-taking skills
Read test items aloud to students (when it does not violate standardized testing)
Use alternative assessments such as portfolios or performance-based projects
Pre-set students for touch with verbal prompts, “I’m going to touch your right hand.”
Avoid touching from behind or getting too close and make sure peers are aware of this
Provide a quiet place, without auditory or visual distractions, for testing, silent reading or work that requires great concentration
Warn the student when bells will ring or if a fire drill is scheduled
Whisper when working one to one with the child
Allow parents to provide earplugs or sterile waxes for noisy events such as assemblies
Make sure the parent knows about what is observed about the student in the classroom
Refer student for occupational therapy or sensory integration training
Be cognizant of light and light sources that may be irritating to child
Use manipulatives, but make sure they are in students field of vision and don’t force student to touch them

Yellow
Blue
Orange
Black
Red
Green
Purple
Yellow
Red
Orange
Green
Black
Activity 2

Volunteers?

Please read the COLOR the word is written in and not the word itself.
Discussion
How did your brain actually want to read the word?

Notice that even if you can do this activity, it takes more time to read each word correctly.

This is an example of how difficult it is for students with learning disabilities to get through their day.

Their brain may understand what needs to be done, but it may be challenging to make it come out right.
Activity 1
The following link is a dyslexia simulation.
This simulation demonstrates some common symptoms of dyslexia.
You are given 60 seconds to read a paragraph aloud.
The letters in this paragraph are reversed, inverted, transposed, and spelling is inconsistent.
There will be two questions to answer at the end of the 60 seconds, so you must decipher the words as best as you can.
http://webaim.org/simulations/dyslexia-sim.html
Learning Disabilities Association of America. (n.d.). Learning Disabilities Association of America. Retrieved February 27, 2014, from http://ldaamerica.org/

Mastropieri, M. A., & Scruggs, T. E. (2000). The inclusive classroom: strategies for effective instruction. Upper Saddle River, N.J.: Merrill.

Multi-level Prevention System. (n.d.). Center on Response to Intervention. Retrieved February 28, 2014, from http://www.rti4success.org/essential-components-rti/multi-level-prevention-system

National Center for Learning Disabilities | NCLD.org - NCLD. (n.d.). Homepage Banner Rotator RSS. Retrieved February 25, 2014, from http://www.ncld.org/

We have web accessibility in mind. (n.d.). WebAIM: Web Accessibility In Mind. Retrieved February 27, 2014, from http://webaim.org/

What Is Metacognition?. (n.d.). Metacognitive Strategies, Metacognition Strategies. Retrieved March 6, 2014, from http://www.benchmarkeducation.com/educational-leader/reading/metacognitive-strategies.html


Response to Intervention
Approach where general education teachers implement
research
-based practices and curriculum based assessments to record student
progress
on a daily basis
Students who do not show adequate progress may be eligible for more
intense
interventions or a referral to special education
Intended to
prevent
academic failure through:
early intervention
frequent progress monitoring
a system of increasingly intensive research-based interventions ( implemented in tiers)
Tier 1
Teacher confers with student and
parents
to help resolve the learning or behavioral problems
Could include some specific,
evidence
based practices in the general ed classroom such as:
peer tutoring
explicit instruction in reading skills & sub skills where needed
monitoring of student progress
Tier 2
Teacher meets with the school's assistance team to
identify
the problem and
plan
an intervention
Could include:
standard small group instruction (4-5 students) in reading, perhaps for 30 min, per day, 4x a week, for 10-12 weeks

Tier 3
Special education assistance may be
requested.
Could include:
highly intensive, individualized instruction based upon the student's
individual
needs.


Mastropieri, M. A., & Scruggs, T. E. (2000). The inclusive classroom: strategies for effective instruction. Upper Saddle River, N.J.: Merrill.
Mastropieri, M. A., & Scruggs, T. E. (2000). The inclusive classroom: strategies for effective instruction. Upper Saddle River, N.J.: Merrill.
Mastropieri, M. A., & Scruggs, T. E. (2000). The inclusive classroom: strategies for effective instruction. Upper Saddle River, N.J.: Merrill.
Mastropieri, M. A., & Scruggs, T. E. (2000). The inclusive classroom: strategies for effective instruction. Upper Saddle River, N.J.: Merrill.
Mastropieri, M. A., & Scruggs, T. E. (2000). The inclusive classroom: strategies for effective instruction. Upper Saddle River, N.J.: Merrill.
Mastropieri, M. A., & Scruggs, T. E. (2000). The inclusive classroom: strategies for effective instruction. Upper Saddle River, N.J.: Merrill.
Mastropieri, M. A., & Scruggs, T. E. (2000). The inclusive classroom: strategies for effective instruction. Upper Saddle River, N.J.: Merrill.
Mastropieri, M. A., & Scruggs, T. E. (2000). The inclusive classroom: strategies for effective instruction. Upper Saddle River, N.J.: Merrill.
Mastropieri, M. A., & Scruggs, T. E. (2000). The inclusive classroom: strategies for effective instruction. Upper Saddle River, N.J.: Merrill.
Multi-level Prevention System. (n.d.). Center on Response to Intervention. Retrieved February 28, 2014, from http://www.rti4success.org/essential-components-rti/multi-level-prevention-system
National Center for Learning Disabilities | NCLD.org - NCLD. (n.d.). Homepage Banner Rotator RSS. Retrieved February 25, 2014, from http://www.ncld.org/
National Center for Learning Disabilities | NCLD.org - NCLD. (n.d.). Homepage Banner Rotator RSS. Retrieved February 25, 2014, from http://www.ncld.org/
National Center for Learning Disabilities | NCLD.org - NCLD. (n.d.). Homepage Banner Rotator RSS. Retrieved February 25, 2014, from http://www.ncld.org/
http://ldaamerica.org/types-of-learning-disabilities/
http://ldaamerica.org/types-of-learning-disabilities/
http://ldaamerica.org/types-of-learning-disabilities/
http://ldaamerica.org/types-of-learning-disabilities/
Maria is a 12-year old girl of average intelligence and has a pleasant, cooperative disposition. She tries hard to succeed in school but has great difficulty reading independently. She writes slowly , using simple statements and words that are easy for her to spell. Her writing is labored and does not accurately reflect her thinking.

Maria receives assistance with her reading and writing in the resource room 4 days a week. Mr. Harrison, Maria's teacher, has prioritized Maria's class assignments. Mr. Harrison does not require that she read or write independently to participate in class activities. In social studies, for example, when the class if given an assignment to read parts of the textbook, Maria is allowed to read together with a classmate. The classmate reads questions from the assignments aloud, and Maria is allowed to write simple answers to the questions or to dictate longer answers to her partner. Mr. Harrison uses clear, structured presentations to maximize Maria's understanding of the lessons. Finally, Maria's performance is systematically monitored to ensure that she is learning adequately and that the need for further adaptations is examined. By the second semester, maria's reading and writing skills have improved enough that she is encouraged to independently comlete reading and writing assignments when possible but to ask a classmate or teacher for specific assistance when required.
Questions for Reflection:

1) What else could be done to help improve Maria's reading and writing skills?
2) What other adaptations could be provided to help Maria show what she knows?
Instruction:
Teach
metacognitive skills
such as
Planning
before reading
Think about text's topic/features
Read title & author, front and back cover blurbs & table of contents
Study illustrations including labels & captions
Monitoring
during reading
make connections
make predictions
make inferences
identify text structure
use graphic organizers
write comments or questions on sticky notes or in margins
Evaluating
Reflect on strategies used and determine if the plan worked
Instructional Materials:

Hands on learning activities
Audiobooks
Graphic organizers
Chronologs
Modified notes (fill in the blanks)
Academic vocabulary
Journal responses
Index cards or reading screens
Choice projects
Choice reading materials
Story Maps
Paragraph restatement
Summarization strategies
Read 180 software
What Is Metacognition?. (n.d.). Metacognitive Strategies, Metacognition Strategies. Retrieved March 6, 2014, from http://www.benchmarkeducation.com/educational-leader/reading/metacognitive-strategies.html
Full transcript