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Transcript of TEACHING SPEAKING
Accuracy and fluency
Affective factors "Language ego"
"It's better to keep your mouth closed
and have others think you are ignorant
than to open it and remove all doubts" Mark Twain
The interaction effect
Genres of spoken language Types of Spoken language
Transactional WHAT MAKES SPEAKING DIFFICULT? Clustering
Rate of delivery
Stress, rhythm and intonation
Interaction MICRO AND MACROSKILLS OF ORAL COMMUNICATION MICROSKILLS
1. Produce chunks of language if different lengths.
2. Orally produce differences among the English phonemes and allophonic variants.
3. Produce English stress patterns, words in stressed and unstressed positions, rhythmic structure, and intonational contours.
4. Produce reduced forms of words and phrases.
5. Use an adequate number of lexical units (words) in order to accomplish pragmatic purposes.
6. Produce fluent speech at different rates of delivery.
7. Monitor your own oral production and use various strategic devices –pauses, fillers, self-corrections, backtracking –
to enhance the clarity of the message.
8. Express a particular meaning in different grammatical forms.
1. Use cohesive devices in spoken discourse.
2. Accomplish appropriately communicative functions according to situations, participants, and goals.
3. Use appropriate registers, implicature, pragmatic conventions, and other sociolinguistic features in face-to-face conversations.
4. Convey links and connections between events and communicative such relations as main idea, supporting idea, new
information, given information, generalization and exemplification.
5. Use facial features, kinesics, body language, and other nonverbal cues along with verbal language to convey meaning. TYPES OF CLASSROOM SPEAKING PERFORMANCE 1.- Imitative DRILLS short
phonology or grammar
don't overuse them
3.- Responsive "How are you today?"
"Pretty good, thanks, and you?"
6.- Extensive Amy: Hi, Bob, how's it going?
Bob: Oh, so-so.
Amy: Not a great weekend, huh?
Bob: Well, far from me to criticize, but I'm pretty miffed about last week.
Amy: What are you talking about?
Bob: I think you know perfectly well what I'm talking about. PRINCIPLES FOR TEACHING SPEAKING SKILLS
1.- Focus on both fluency and accuracy
2.- Provide intrinsically motivating techniques
3.- Encourage the use of authentic language in meaningful contexts.
4.- Provide appropriate feedback and correction.
5.- Capitalize on the natural link between speaking and listening.
6.- Give ss opportunities to initiate oral communication.
7.- Encourage the development of speaking strategies TEACHING CONVERSATION Indirect Approach vs Direct Approach
Features of conversation
How to use conversation for both transactional and interactional purposes.
How to produce both short and long turns in conversation.
Strategies for opening and closing conversations.
How to use both a casual style of speaking and a neutral or more formal style.
How to maintain fluency in conversation through avoiding excessive pausing, breakdowns and comprehension problems. CONVERSATION-INDIRECT
(strategy consciousness-raising) CONVERSATION-DIRECT
(ordering from a
catalog) MEANINGFUL ORAL GRAMMAR PRACTICE TEACHING PRONUNCIATION RHYTHM AND INTONATION
CLEAR, COMPREHENSIBLE PRONUNCIATION
FACTORS THAT AFFECT PRONUNCIATION:
Innate phonetic ability
Identity and language ego
Motivation and concern for good pronunciation
Techniques for teaching Eng pronunciation:
A.- Intonation- Listening for pitch changes
B.- Stress- Contrasting nouns
C.- Meaningful minimal pairs When? Local error: "There is a French widow in every
Global error: "The different city is another one
in the another two."
Local or Global
Mistake or error
Learner's affective state FOCUS ON FORM AND ERROR TREATMENT 1.- Imitative speaking tasks: minimal pair repetition, word/ phrase repetition, sentence repetition
2.- Intensive speaking tasks:
read-aloud (pronunciation or fluency)
oral sentence completion "Yesterday, I ______________."
oral cloze procedure "Yesterday, I _______________ to the grocery store."
dialogue completion T: May I help you? S: ________________
directed response: "What did you do last week?"
picture-cued elicitation of a grammatical item. (comparatives)
3.- Responsive speaking tasks:
map-cued elicitation of directions "How do I get to the post-office?"
elicitation of instructions "What's the recipe for lemon pie?"
paraphrasing (of a short narrative or phone message)
4.- Interactive speaking tasks:
discussions and conversations
5.- Extensive speaking tasks:
picture-cued (extensive) storytelling
retelling a story or news event ASSESSING SPEAKING IN THE CLASSROOM ITEM TYPES AND TASKS FOR ASSESSING SPEAKING: PRONUNCIATION
TASK EVALUATING by Brown