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Transcript of RNA Viruses
http://www. phil.cdc.gov Picture: Created by CDC microbiologist Frederick A. Murphy, this colorized transmission electron micrograph (TEM) revealed some of the ultrastructural morphology displayed by an Ebola virus virion
http://www. phil.cdc.gov Picture: This colorized negative stained transmission electron micrograph (TEM), captured by F.A. Murphy in 1968, depicts a number of Marburg virus virions, which had been grown in an environment of tissue culture cells
http://www. phil.cdc.gov Marburg and Ebola viruses
Single stranded (ss) RNA
Long and filamentous capsid, helical symmetry,
Monkey is reservoir, but is transmitted to humans through body fluids and respiratory droplets
Mortality rate about 90%
Bio-safety Level 4 containment required
Diagnosed with electron microscopy, RT - PCR Family- Filoviridae
Filoviruses Picture: Coronaviruses are a group of viruses that have a halo or crown-like (corona) appearance when viewed under a microscope. The coronavirus is now recognized as the etiologic agent of the 2003 SARS outbreak. http://www. phil.cdc.gov Single stranded (ss) RNA genome
Corona effect is due to large club-shaped spikes on the surface
About 15% of cold-like illness
Newly emerging virus- SARS (Severe acute respiratory syndrome)
Grows in cell culture Family - Coronaviridae
Coronaviruses Lab Diagnosis- Lab diagnosis is done by serology
Screen with Enzyme Immuno Assay (EIA)
Western Blot – Confirmatory method
RT- PCR Hepatitis C Virus Single stranded RNA, spherical and icosahedral capsid, capsule present.
Mode of transmission by blood/blood products, and sexual contact
Disease- It causes acute and chronic Hepatitis
Chronic case have been associated with hepatocellular carcinoma Picture: An electron micrograph of Yellow Fever Virus virions. Virions are spheroidal, uniform in shape and are 40-60nm in diameter. Arboviruses
Not isolated by culture
Diagnosis of Saint Louis Encephalitis and West Nile encephalitis is done by Serology and antibody detection in spinal fluid
Dengue and yellow fever- Rt- PCR
Treatment and prevention – supportive and avoid contact with vector Family – Flaviviridae
Saint Louis Encephalitis, West Nile virus, Yellow fever, and Dengue
Hepatits C Virus Flaviviridae There are two major types of HIV:
HIV-1: subtype B common in USA
and HIV-2: Common in Africa
Icosahedral capsid with envelop
Serology, antigen detection, RT-PCR
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)
Types HIV-1 & HIV-2 HTLV 1, and HTLV 2
Mode of transmission is same as HIV infection
HTLV1- T- cell leukemia and lymphoma
Lab diagnosis - Serology
Human T – Lymphotropic viruses
(HTLV 1, HTLV 2)
Single stranded RNA
Icosahedral capsid with envelop Retrovirus Picture: This 1976 negative stained transmission electron micrograph (TEM) depicted the ultrastructural features displayed by the mumps virus.
http://www. phil.cdc.gov Mumps virus-
Mode of transmission respiratory droplet
Mumps virus cases the mumps disease -infects parotid salivary glands
Can cause kidney infection
It is isolated from throat swab or urine
Lab dignosis- Cell culture
Mumps Picture: This thin-section transmission electron micrograph (TEM) revealed the ultrastructural appearance of a single virus particle, or “virion”, of measles virus
http://www. phil.cdc.gov Measles virus-
1 serological type
100 to 200nm in diameter
Cause: Measles - Maculopapular rash, fever, respiratory disease Measles Picture: This electron micrograph reveals the morphologic traits of the Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) ttp://www. phil.cdc.gov Lab Diagnosis:
They can be isolated from throat and grow in cell culture (PMK) , shell vial culture,
For identification- Hemadsorption Parainfluenza viruses
Cause upper respiratory infections in adults pneumonia is rare
Causes respiratory infection including pneumonia in children
There are 4 serotypes types of parainfluenza viruses Parainfluenza viruses Picture: Highly-magnified, digitally-colorized transmission electron micrograph (TEM) depicted numbers of virions from a Novel Flu H1N1 isolate; http://www. phil.cdc.gov Picture: This transmission electron micrograph (TEM) depicts numbers of influenza A virions while in their early passage growth phase.
http://www. phil.cdc.gov Influenza infection and replication is a multi-step process, which progress as under:
First, the virus bind to the cell and enters into it
Then deliver its genome to a site where it can produce new copies of viral proteins and RNA
Assemble these components into new viral particles, and, last, exit the host cell Influenza virus Common cold virus
Mode of transmission- respiratory secretions
More than 100 serotype
Grow in cell culture
Grow best at lower temperature (30C)
Treatment and prevention
Supportive and avoid the contact with respiratory secretions Rhinovirus Picture: Electron micrograph of the poliovirus, a species of Enterovirus, which is a Genus in the family of Picornaviridae, and is an RNA virus. http://www. phil.cdc.gov The isolate may be further typed by molecular assays.
Serology - this is not widely used as virus tissue culture techniques are so efficient. Neutralization tests, in which acute and convalescent sera are mixed with known concentrations of laboratory strains of poliovirus and then absorbed onto monolayers of cell cultures, are the most efficient serological test system available. Poliovirus-contd. Major Diseases Associated with Enterovirus- Contd. Group Major Diseases Associated with Enterovirus
Can probably be transmitted in the same way as the viruses causing the common cold e.g. by hand contact with secretions and autoinoculation into the mouth, nose, or eyes Enterovirus contd. Enteroviruses enters into the human body through alimentary canal
Viral replication takes place in the cell linings of the alimentary tract
For several enteroviruses, a viraemic phase is followed by involvement of target organs e.g. the spinal cord, brain, meninges, myocardium or skin.
Incubation periods vary from 2 to 40 days Enterovirus contd.
They are Single stranded (ss) RNA, replicates in the cytoplasm of the cells
They are non-enveloped, icosahedral capsid
Transmitted through fecal- oral contact
In animals, it can cause cancer
There are more than 70 Human serotypes have been isolated Enteroviruses
Virus: Hepatitis A virus
Virus: Rhinovirus (common cold virus)
Marburg or Ebola viruses causes severe type of hemorrhagic fever, abdominal pain, vomiting, priteinuria, myalgia, pharyngitis, and conjunctivitis.
Severe symptoms include jaundice, inflammation of the pancreas, severe weight loss, delirium, shock, liver failure, and multi-organ dysfunction. Marburg & Ebola viruses Mode of transmission is probably direct contact or aerosol
Disease – Common cold, severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), and possibly gastroenteritis mainly in children
Lab diagnosis- Electron microscopy and RT- PCR
Treatment is supportive Coronaviruses Quick Review-
Hepatitis A Virus (RNA Virus)
Family – Picornaviridae
Hepatitis C Virus (RNA Virus)
Family – Flaviviridae
Hepatitis B Virus (DNA Virus)
Family - Hepadnaviridae Virus associated with Hepatitis Single stranded (ss) RNA
The name "Yellow Fever" is due to the ensuing jaundice that affects some patients.
The disease is transmitted by arthropod vector such as the Aedes aegypti or Haemagogus spp. mosquito. Mode of transmission
Blood and blood product exposure, sexual contact, and perinatal exposure
Most disease in humans caused by HIV-1, infected cells include CD4 (helper) T lymphocytes, monocytes, and some cells of central nervous system; asymptomatic infection, acute flu-like disease, AIDS, and associated infections and malignancies Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) type 1 & 2
They are made up of single stranded (SS) RNA
Their replication process occur in nucleus and cytoplasm
All retroviruses are unique as they have enzyme reverse transcriptase, which allows the viral RNA genome to replicate into DNA and then RNA, instead of directly into RNA Retroviridae-(Retroviruses)
HIV 1 & 2, HTLV 1 & 2 Lab diagnosis
Cell culture - It produces typical CPE with a syncytial appearance
Rapid testing available; ELISA & Immunofluroscence
Confirmatory test involves monoclonal antibody
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) Respiratory synctial virus (RSV)
ssRNA enveloped virus, 120 - 300 nm in size
RSV, is a respiratory virus that infects the lungs and breathing passages.
Causes pneumonia and bronchiolitis in infants
Upper respiratory infection in children Respiratory Synctial Virus Parainfluenza viruses
Single stranded RNA
Helocal capsid, enveloped Parainfluenza
Influenza viruses can change in two different ways:
Antigenic drift – small and
Antigenic shift – large
The influenza A virus H1N1 emerged in 2009 caused the first global influenza pandemic in more than 40 years. Influenza viruses
Influenza viruses- They are RNA viruses,commonly known as flu viruses
Can replicate only in the living cells
Types of Influenza viruses- There are 3 types based on antigenic groups:
Influenza Viruses Mode of transmission- Fecal oral route
Incubation period- short, sudden onset
Disease – Hepatitis
Lab detection – Serology method
Treatment and prevention
Supportive and Vaccine Hepatitis A virus Laboratory Diagnosis
Virus isolation - the CSF usually show the changes typical for that of viral meningitis with lymphocytosis and a high protein level.
Poliovirus is readily isolated from throat swabs, feces, or rectal swabs by inoculation into cell culture.
The CPE produced can be neutralized by type specific sera which forms the basis for identification. Poliovirus- contd. 3 serotypes of poliovirus with no common poliovirus antigen. They have identical physical properties and their base sequences share 36 - 52% homology. Humans are the only natural hosts for polioviruses Enterovirus- contd. Classification of Enteroviruses
Human enterovirus serotypes are distinguished on the basis of homotypic seroneutralization and show wide range of biological and pathogenic properties.
These viruses are divided into 5 categories:
Polioviruse: have 3 main types
Coxsackievirus Group A: have 23 types
Coxsackievirus Group B: have 6 types
Echovirus: have 31 types
New enterovirus Enterovirus contd. Picornaviridae
Families of RNA Viruses Family
Picornaviridae Picornaviruses Enterovirus- contd. Polio Virus (poliomyelitis) Enterovirus- contd. Enterovirus Facts Enteroviruses Quiz 1. What are the Enteroviruses?
3. Transmitted by?
4. How long is the incubation period?
5. Name 1 disease caused by Poliovirus
6. Name 1 disease caused by Echovirus
7. Name 1 disease caused by New Enterovirus 7.Poli-like Illness, Aseptic Meningitis, Hand-Foot-Mouth Dieases, Epidemic Conjunctivitis 1. Poliovirus, Coxsackievirus, Echovirus 2. No 3. Through Fecal-Oral contact 4. 2 - 40 days 5. Paralytic Poliomyelitis, Aseptic Meningitis, Febrile Illness 6. Aseptic Meningitis, Rash, Febrile Illness, Conjunctivitis, Severe Generalized Neonatal Disease Questions Answers (click to reveal 1 at a time) Family
Bouvier NM, Palese P (September 2008). "The biology of
influenza viruses". Vaccine 26 Suppl 4: D49–53. Orthomyxoviridae Quiz 1. What are Influenza viruses commonly called?
2. Where do Influenza viruses replicate?
3. Name the 3 types of influenza viruses
4. Name 1 way Influenza virus can change
5. How does an Influenza virus replicate? 5. 1st: Virus binds to cell and enters 2: delivers genome to produce new copies of viral proteins and RNA 3: these components assemble into new viral particles 4: exits cell 1. Flu Viruses 2. Only in living cells 3. Influenzavirus A, B, and C 4. Antigenic drift (small), Antigenic shift (large) Questions Answers (click to reveal 1 at a time) Family
Paramyxoviridae Paramyxoviridae Quiz 1. Enveloped?
2. Name the virus just described
3. Diagnosis of this virus?
4. What disease does this virus cause? 1. Yes Answers (click to reveal one at a time) Questions 4: Respiratory infection including pneumonia in children 3. Isolated from throat specimen, grown in cell culture (PMK), Shell vial culture. FA Stain, for Identification - Hemadsorption 2. Parainfluenza Paramyxoviridae Quiz Questions Answers (click to reveal one at a time) 1. Name the virus just described
2. What does the cell culture produce?
3. Name one of the rapid tests
4. What's the confirmatory involve? 1. Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) 4. Monoclonal Antibody 3. ELISA and Immunoflurscence 2. CPE with a syncytial appearance Questions Paramyxoviridae Quiz Answers (click to reveal one at a time 1. Name the virus just described
2. What does this virus cause?
3. How contagious? 1.Measles Virus 3. Extremely! 2. Measles - Maculopapular rash, fever, respiratory dieases (RSV) Paramyxoviridae Quiz Questions Answers (click to reveal one at a time) 1. Name the virus just described
2. How is this virus transmitted?
3. What does this virus cause?
4. Isolated from?
5. Diagnosis by? 1. Mumps virus 5. Cell culture -Hemadsorption 4. Throat swab or urine 3. Kidney infecion 2. Respiratory droplet Family
Retroviridae Retroviridae Quiz Answers (click to reveal one at a time) Questions
1. Double or single stranded A?
2. What makes all Retroviruses unique?
1. Detection by?
3. Mode of transmission?
4. Which cells does HIV infect? 1. Single stranded (SS) RNA HTLV HIV-1 and HIV-2 HTLV HIV-1 and HIV-2 4. CD4 (helper), T Lymphs, monocytes, and some cells of central nervous system 3. Sexual contact, blood/blood product exposure, and perinantal exposure 2. Yes 1. Serology, antigen detection, RT-PCR 4. Serology 3. Yes 2. Reverse transcriptase, allows viral RNA genome to replicate into DNA then RNA. Family
Coronaviridae Saint Louis Encephalitis, West Nile virus, Yellow fever, and Dengue Arboviruses Hepatitis C Virus Flaviviridae Quiz Questions Answers (click to reveal one at a time) 1. Name the group of viruses that was described
3. What kind of insect transmits this virus?
4. Why is it called Yellow Fever? 1. Arboviruses 4. Patients affected by Jaundice 3. Mosquito 2. Yes Dieases Poliovirus Coxsackie Group A Aseptic Meningitis
Hand-Foot-Mouth diease Paralytic Poliomyelitis
Febrile Illness Group Disease Coxsackie Group B Aseptic Meningitis
Sever Neonatal Disease
Febrile Illness Echovirus Aseptic Meningitis
Sever Generized Neonatal Disease New Enterovirus Polio-like-illness
Epidemic conjunctivitis 1. Name the virus that was just described
2. What chronic condition does this cause?
3. Mode of transmission?
4. What's the confirmatory method?
5. What is the chronic case associated with? 1. Hepatitis C Flaviviridae Quiz Questions Answers (click to reveal one at a time) 5. Hepatocellular Carcinoma 4. Western Blot 3. Blood/blood products and sexual contact 2. Chronic Hepatitis Family
Filoviridae Quiz Coronaviridae 1. Enveloped?
2. What's the corona effect from?
3. What does SARS stand for?
4. Diseases caused?
5. Diagnosis by? 1. Yes Quetions Answers (click to reveal one at a time) 5. Electron microscopy and RT-PCR 4. Common cold, SARS, possibly Gastroenteritis (children) 3. Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome 2. Club-shaped spikes on surface Quiz Filoviridae 1. Name the 2 viruses of Filoviridae
3. Level of Bio-safety required?
4. Diagnosis by?
5. Name 2 effects/symptoms of these viruses 1. Marburg and Ebola Viruses 5. Hemorrhagic Fever, Abdominal Pain
Inflammation of pancrase
Severe weight loss, Delirium
Shock, Liver failure
Multiple organ dysfunction 4. Electron Microscopy, RT-PCR 3. Bio-safely level 4 2. Yes Viridae and their viruses Picornaviridae Filoviridae Coronaviridae Paramyxoviridae Orthomyxoviridae Enteroviruses
Hepatitis A Virus
Rhinovirus Influenza A, B, And C viruses Parainfluenza Virus
Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV)
Mumps Virus HIV 1 & 2
HTLV 1 & 2 SARS Coronavirus Flaviviridae Arboviruses - St. Louis Encephalitis
Hepatitis C Virus Retroviriae started Lets get Source All information from class notes and all credit goes to Instructor : Razia Begum Extra Credit Pending Made by: Christopher Brewer Study Guide For: Contains multiple quizzes To irritate you Ebola