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(Livelihood & Industries)
PRE- SPANISH SETTLEMENTS
Industries in the Pre-Spanish Time
TAXATION WITHOUT REPRESENTATION
POLO Y SERVICIO PERSONAL / PRESTACION PERSONAL
There were high expectations that the new colony would yield for the Crown financial gains, but these hopes were soon dissipated
Fishing and Trading
Most communities were near a body of water.
Fishing was relied on more then hunting.
Farming and Crafting
Most of the people were self-sufficient farmers and part-time craftsmen.
Barangays had primitive economic units with subsistence agriculture.
Proof: eyewitness account of Diego de Artieda 1567 Industries in the Pre-Spanish Time
Capitana: Rice was also the main article of food together with millet, borona, roasted bananas, certain roots resembling sweet potatoes (oropisa), as well as yams, camote, and camote leaves (boiled). Cloth of banana leaves, cotton cloth with colored stripes are used.
Houses: made of renewable resources, no stone, no public buildings, low level of political and social organization.
- influenced by method of cultivating rice (shifting cultivation or the better wet-rice agriculture (lowland Luzon) ) and scarcity of food.
Lowland technique -
Wet rice agriculture:
They soak a basketful of rice
in a river. Sprouted rice is
then placed in a bamboo
mat, covered with earth
and placed where it is kept
moist by the water. After it
is sufficiently germinated,
they are transplanted.
(like kaingin method)
They burn over a part of the mountain, make holes with a stick in the soil, drop rice grains on them and cover them with some earth.
ECONOMIC SYSTEM IN THE SPANISH COLONIAL PERIOD
construction and repair of infrastracture, church construction, cutting of logs in forests
40 days -> 15 days
"Falla (falta, palya) - 1 1/2 real
upsetting of the village economy
forces separation from the family
relocation to different places
decimation of the male population
THE MANILA-ACAPULCO GALLEON TRADE
ROYAL ECONOMIC SOCIETY OF FRIENDS OF THE COUNTRY
ROYAL PHILIPPINE COMPANY
S U M M A R Y
grant from the Spanish crown to a meritorious Spaniard
DUTIES OF AN ENCOMENDERO
defend his encomienda
keep peace and order
assist the missionaries
RIGHT OF AN ENCOMENDERO
2 KINDS OF ENCOMIENDA
realenga or encomienda de la real corona
Lands reserved for the crown
granted to individuals (King's protoges or men who served with merit
ENCOMIENDAS: ROYAL AND PRIVATE
8 reales yearly
some encomenderos violated regulations
"lawless" remontados or tulisanes (bandits)
lack of systematic tribute collection
many Filipinos died of starvation
unjust collection of tributes
In this economical institution two ships journey annually, one outgoing and one incoming, between Manila and Acapulco de Juarez. These ships are called Acapulco Galleons also known as Galleon de Manila or Nao de China.
Only a few benefitted from this institution, namely the Spanish Governor, Spanish Residents of Manila and the Consulados.
During this time Chinese Mestizos overtook the retail and small credit businesses in Binondo.
➢ Intercultural exchanges like the exchange of languages and practices occurred
➢ In the Philippines, goods like avocado, papaya, guava and pineapple were received including animals like horses and cattle.
➢ In Mexico, they received goods like Philippine Mango, rice and tamarind. They also received carabao.
➢ ➢ This economical institution was disadvantageous to Filipinos because they were forced to work in making the Galleons.
➢ The industries that existed before the Manila Acapulco Trade like agriculture were neglected.
➢ Population growth arrested
Also known as Real Socieda de Economica de Amigos de Pals
This was established by
Josede Basca y Vargas
which was a Spanish governor. He wanted the country to have a self sustaining economy.
This economical institutions goal was for leading men in business, industry and profession to exploit and make use of the natural resources in the Philippines.
The existence of this institution comes and goes
➢ ➢ Giving of incentives by the Spaniards to those farmers and workers who do specific activities like farming certain plants, mining and bee-keeping.
➢ Responsible for introducing mayna birds which solved the locusts infestation in the Philippines
➢ Responsible for Carabao ban which was for the preservation of the species
➢ Construction of the first paper mill in the Philppines
➢B ➢ rought untold hardships to Filipinos
In this economic institution, Philippine, Indian and Chinese goods were brought to Manila and then shipped them to Spain via the Cape of Good Hope.
Other economic institutions opposed this because they saw the Royal Philippine Company as a serious and major competitor and this proved to be true.
➢ 40% of the profits of this institution were used for technical and community development.
➢ For Spaniards, this resulted to early and better growth of Philippine grown products
➢ ➢ Brought hardships and misery to Filipinos
➢ Brought political unrest in the Philippines
➢ The Manila Acapulco Trade Deteriorated
THE CHINESE ROLE
Clarice Aleta | Renz Algenio | Annabelle Dy
Renz Farol | Angelica Mea | Alyanna Salvador
Unlike the rich mines that Spaniards found in America, they did not find the ff. in the Philippines:
1. temples of Montezuma
2. edifices that housed vessels of gold
3. abundance of spices
-The abandonment of the archipelago was already being proposed a year after Legazpi’s arrival in Cebu
-Despite its lack of economic promise, the colony was retained as the religious were able to convince the royal court that the Philippines would be a valuable stepping stone to China and Japan
Philippines was a potential:
staging ground for missionary efforts in Asia
outpost of empire
base for the conquest of neighboring nations
A more basic factor was the mercantilist philosophy of the time with its emphasis on trade
Therefore, up to the middle of the 18th century, the Philippines colony was not much more than a defense outpost in the East ruled by a group of military administrators who received a situado, an annual subsidy from Mexico
The rest of their needs had to be extracted from the population
a policy of resettlement which would consolidate population in larger villages
a part of the Spanish colonial experience in Latin America which demonstrated that the Indians were more rapidly and efficiently organized for colonial purposes once they had been resettled in compact villages
this experience led to the operation of reduccion in the Philippines
Reduccion in Spain’s American colonies: carried out jointly by Church and State
Reduccion in the Philippines: carried out mainly by friars
To move to compact villages was highly impractical and contrary to the traditional life pattern of Filipinos because they needed to live close to where they get their supply of food
There was much hostility to the resettlement program of the Spaniards
To overcome barangay reluctance, the friars used a variety of techinques
1. gifts of “shirts, salt, needles, combs and tibors”
2. free housing within the reducciones
3. novelty of mass participation in colourful church
4. high-sounding titles and honors for the chiefs
If these enticements were insufficient, they resorted to threats and other pressures
Quite often, barangays would elect resettlement out of fear of either encomenderos or soldiers
Some sought protection from the oppression and cruelty of encomenderos and soldiers by joining settlements under the charge of the religious
Income-generating mechanisms consisting of taxes, monopolies (rentas estancadas) of special crops, and items as spirituous liqors (1712-1864), betel nut (1764), tobacco (1782-1882), explosives (1805-1864), and opium (1847):
1. Direct – personal tribute and income tax
2. Indirect – custom duties and bandalá
TAXATION WITHOUT REPRESENTATION
-Buwis or tribute may be paid in cash or kind, partly or wholly as:
1. palay or tobacco
5. special regional produce depending on the area of the country
*1 real = 12 ½ centavos
-Tribute was fixed at 8 reales or in kind or “gold, blankets, cotton, rice, bells” in the 1570’s
-Tribute was raised to 15 reales till the end of the Spanish period
-Until the mid-19th century, the Filipinos were required to pay the following taxes and other impositions:
1. tribute of 10 reales
2. diezmos prediales (tithes) of 1 real
3. town community chest, 1 real
4. sanctorum tax for church support, 3 reales
*15 reales all in all
TAXATION WITHOUT REPRESENTATION
-Aside from the tribute, a special tax of:
1. ½ real or rice called samboangan or donativo de Zamboanga (collected since 1635 until the mid-19th century)
2. vinta (gathered since 1781 till 1851, with some interruptions)
to crush the Moro raids and to equip vintas to shield the coastal areas of Bulacan and Pampanga respectively
-falúa - counterpart of vinta which was collected in Camarines Sur, Cebu, Misamis, and other littoral provinces
Special privileges of tax exemptions were granted to the descendants of the Filipino chiefly class who served in pacification campaigns conducted by the conquistadores notably:
1. Carlos Lakandula of Manila
2. Pedro Mojica of Cavite
3. Rajah Tupas of Cebu
4. laborers of the arsenal and artillery yard of Cavite
5. mediquillos - Filipinos who had medical experience but no title
7. college and university students of Santo Tomas, San Jose,
San Juan de Letran, San Carlos (Cebu)
TAXATION WITHOUT REPRESENTATION
-Another tax collected was bandalá
comes from Tagalog word “mandalâ” (a round stack of rice stalks to be threshed)
- Bandalá assumed the meaning of the annual enforced sale or requisitioning of goods (rice or coconut oil) in the case of Tayabas
-fanega -> 2 1/2 ½ bushels or approximately more than ₱6,000 during Governor Sebastian Hurtado de Corcuera’s time (1635-1644)
- Bandalá was abolished in the provinces of Tondo, Bulacan, Pampanga, Laguna, Batangas, Tayabas, and Cavite in November 1782
-Cédula personal or personal identity paper (equivalent to the present residence tax) replaced the tribute
-Filipino or other nationalities over 18 years or age was reuiqred to pay the cédula personal