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SPEECH COMMUNITY THEORY
Transcript of SPEECH COMMUNITY THEORY
Historically, we can consider Leonard Bloomfield as the “father” of the speech community idea, starting from his concept of utterance (act of speech) and the assumption that within communities, utterances are “partly alike,” (1887-1949).
The concept of speech community
*(Bloomfield, 1933-1961). A group of people who share a language, interact by means of the same system of speech-signals, and constitute a speech-community. The utility of language depends on people in the same group emitting speech-signals that are appropriate for a given occasion and reacting appropriately after hearing them emitted by other people.
1. Understand the concept of a speech community;
2. Know the types of speech community;
3. Know the necessary elements that compose a speech community.
The concept has been expanded by various authors (Gumperz, Labov, Lyons, etc.), usually within the field of sociolinguistics.
BA English 3
Aurelio F. Garcia
*Labov (1972): "Participation in a set of shared norms; these norms may be observed in overt types of evaluative behavior, and by the uniformity of abstract patterns of variation which are invariant in respect to particular levels of usage"
*Gumperz (1971): "A social group which may be either monolingual or multilingual, held together by frequency of social interaction and set off from the surrounding areas by weaknesses in the lines of communication" Gumperz later introduces the requirement that there should be some especially linguistic differences between the members of the speech community and those outside.
*Webster New World College (2010) defines speech community as the people speaking particular language or dialect whether in a single geographical area or dispersed throughout various regions.
*Romaine (1994:22) “A speech community is a group of people who do not necessarily share the same language, but share a set of norms and rules for the use of language.
* Cordere (1973:53) “A speech community is made up of individuals who regard themselves as speaking the same language.
TYPES OF SPEECH COMMUNITY
Primary speech community- is composed of people who have always live in the same place and who usually speak the same language.
Secondary speech community- composed of people that come together from different regions for a number of reasons. It could be for social economic, political, religious, educational reasons. These groups of people adopt one language for social and linguistic interaction because they are heterogeneous in nature.
THE ELEMENTS OF A SPEECH COMMUNITY
Speech community of population must be at least two or more persons, one man can only be said to himself, don't make speech community. Population factors of speech community have no special requirements of gender and age.
A. The Population Element
B. THE AREA ELEMENT
Community can be divided as,
2. Non- regional
C. THE FACILITY ELEMENT
Language- shared by the members of
Two aspects of the Facility Element:
1. linguistic sign system
= This forms the language
2. language usage specification
= include the correct use of words and
grammar with properly constructed
sentences and paragraph.
“Identification” in this paper is defined as a proactive way of accepting the influence of other people, in thinking mode, emotion; attitude and action, with the goal of assimilate one’s own thought and behavior with others.
D. IDENTIFICATION ELEMENT
E. THE INTERACTION ELEMENT
Two levels of interactions:
1. Cold interaction- applies to the situations when speech community members lack real communications even though they meet the requirements on the elements of population, area, facility and identification
2. hot interaction applies to the situations when speech community members conduct effective and frequent communications.