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Transcript of CFSP
The CFSP was born in the Treaty of Maastricht in 1992 and became a full treaty framework In 2009 the Lisbon Treaty, Main goals of the CFSP- Why are they not working? 1.Influence policies violating international law or human rights, or policies disrespectful of the rule of law or democratic principles, the EU has designed sanctions of a diplomatic or economic nature [EU wesite] Structural failures - consensus Deciding principles, general guidelines and common strategies are decided by consensus voting of 27 countries, and in the future 7 more potential members –each with its own national agenda and interests
There are numerous examples for the EU's inabillity to act in a common manner regardring Foreign and security policy – Yugoslavia, Kosovo, Iraq, Afghanistan, Macadonia and Guantanamo.
"It remains true to this day... [that] almost all decisions being made on a consensus basis... [had] arguably very vague outcomes" (Toje 2008). 4.Countries with "greater" international profile, such as France and Britain are not "thrilled" to allow the EU to speak on their behalf, especially in manners of national security.
5.At times of severe international conflict, with great potential diplomatic implications for the countries involved, the coalition still falls apart – for example severe pressure by the us on specific countries to receive Guantanamo bay detainees, Structural failures - consensus While the desire to maintain the national veto over decision-making within the CFSP remains, it is increasingly challenged by the realization that without extended use of qualified majority voting a common policy may prove illusory". [Chirstiansen & Tonra, 2011] Main goals of the CFSP- Why are they not
3.Act as a leading international actor in the fight against illicit accumulation and trafficking of small arms and light weapons. [EU wesite] Illicit Small Arms Trafficking The EU is facing an increase in SALW trafficking as organized crime and terrorist organizations are constantly smuggling weapons in to the EU, mostly from former Yugoslavian nations.
Following the collapse of Yugoslavia, South-Eastern Europe has suffered from damaged and reduced administrative and law enforcement control. This led to a steep rise in organized crime and the emergence and consolidation of a strong black market and networks of trafficking routes across the Balkans and into the EU. The Incompetence of the European Rapid Reaction Force The EU's ability to react to Conflict Prevention and Crisis Management relies mostly on the rapid reaction force (est. 1999, force of 60K soldiers).
The deployment of this forces has been proven difficult in times of major conflicts as the member states on the CFSP either fail to reach an agreement or rather relay on the United States within NATO farmework.
European missions still depend on the member states to make civilian and military capabilities available to the Union for the implementation of its security and defense policy, [Article 42 (3) TEU Lisbon version] The European Security and Defense Policy, which is responsible for the deployment of the ERRF, Can not be assimilated into national legislation – Meannig the EU can not force states to deploy as part of the ERRF.
Some countries from Central/Middle Europe fear that involvement in ESDP might come as an alternative to future NATO membership or worse... Drive The US outside of Europe. [Christiansen, Tonra, 2011] 2.Strengthen the EU's external ability to act through the development of civilian and military capabilities in Conflict Prevention and Crisis Management. [EU wesite] Main goals of the CFSP- Why are they not working? Illicit Small Arms Trafficking "The EU is increasingly seeing flows of new weapons from the Western Balkans to European criminal networks. In the meantime, parallel to, and closely associated with, illicit SALW trafficking is the increasing trafficking in people, drugs and other contraband, as organized criminal gangs allegedly employ the same routes and partnerships to smuggle various illicit commodities across Europe".
As far as statistics, as the number of such weapons in circulation is unknown and difficult to estimate, significant increase in recent years in the number of criminal offences linked to the use of such weapons, as well as a marked increase in police seizures suggest that these weapons have become a significant threat in many EU countries. [Mclean,Mariani, Vatanka,2004] As we have shown, the EU CFSP is inefficient.
Its consensus voting and national interests prevnts it from promoting its international values in a sufficient manner.
In addition, the ERRP fail to strengthen the Unions external ability to act in conflict prevention and crisis management, which still relays mostly on national forces and above all NATO.
The EU CFSP has had no success in reducing the trafficking of SALW into the Union.
Finally, While most of the CFSP success are tactical, most of it's failures are epic.
Therefore, the EU CFSP is unable to meet its own objectives. More over, the EU fails to act in consensus on far less sensitive issues such as the use of the Euro currency and the implemantation of the Schengen Agrrement
That is why, atleast for now, the EU CFSP remains USELESS
Or should we say "a costly illusion?" In the period 1992-present (CFSP):
The EU sent observers to the Russian elections and South Africa, while helping in the preparations of the Palestinian elections as well.
Humanitarian aid packages were given, amongst others, to Bosnia and the Palestinian Territories.
The “Stability Pact” was signed (1995), promoting good relations between Eastern and Western Europe, while pressuring the Eastern countries to respect the rights of their minorities
Help in policing and/or law and order was given to Kosovo, Bosnia, Iraq, the Palestinian Territories, Macedonia, Georgia, Afghanistan, Moldova, the Ukraine, Guinea-Bissau and the Democratic Republic of the Congo
Peacekeeping forces were sent to Bosnia, Macedonia, Georgia and Somalia, while the Aceh Peace Agreement was monitored by EU experts
The Union deployed 3000 troops to protect refugees in Chad and the Central African Republic
The European Union is active in combating piracy in the international waters off the coast of Somalia
On Belgian insistence, the EU intervened in the Republic of the Congo to restore order (2003). The Successes and Failures of the
Common Foreign and Security Policy In the period 1986-1992 (institutionalised EPC):
EPC initially provided a common reaction to the invasion of Kuwait, including sanctions against Iraq
However, cracks soon appeared in the coalition over France’s unilateral peace-initiatives. There were grave suspicions that France had negotiated secretly with Saddam Hussein to get French embassy staff members released, which had been taken hostage by the Iraqis. Its subsequent peace proposals, which were not particularly beneficial to the US, thus seemed to have been influenced by self-interest. The UK and Dutch had reservations about these proposals, given their pro-American stance, which made the French blame these countries’ Atlanticism for the lack of progress
Regarding the Yugoslavian crisis, the EU brokered ceasefires on several occasions, sent peace monitors and imposed economic sanctions
However, Germany recognised Croatia and Slovenia’s independence unilaterally, with France and Britain opposed, while it was France and Britain who most likely would have to commit troops if fighting were to break out
EC plans to recognise Macedonia elicited a furious reaction from the Greek government (due to the name dispute, as Macedonia is also the name of a Greek region). The EC ended up taking the Greek government to court. The Successes and Failures of
European Political Cooperation So let’s look at the achievements and the failures of EPC and CFSP over the years…
In the period 1970-1986 (non-institutionalised EPC):
The EPC produced the Venice Declaration (June 1980), formalising the need for a Palestinian state
A common position was established as concerned Communist Europe
There was major dissension regarding the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan: the British followed the US initiative to boycott the Olympics in protest, France declined to follow suit, while Germany was generally unhappy about any heightened tension between East and West. The Successes and Failures of
European Political Cooperation