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Transcript of Concept Map
Aaron Victor and Fernando Maldonado
The Creation of Earth
A past star went supernova and left behind a planetary nebula leaving elements (mostly hydrogen and helium but some heavier elements as well.)
When Earth was still new, its surface was relatively molten, and many meteors fell to the surface, creating more chaos in an already highly volcanic planet. This was known as the heavy bombardment, around 4.1-3.8 Bya.
As the particles in the cloud began to attract each other, they collided more and more, clumping into larger parts, eventually forming large rocks and asteroids, finally becoming planets orbiting the sun. Earth happened to form third from the sun, putting it in the habitable zone which is the distance away from the sun that is just the right temperature to be able to sustain an atmosphere and liquid water.
Late Heavy Bombardment
Late heavy bombardment is a period where an extraordinarily large amount of asteroids collided with celestial bodies which is where our planet gets most of its mass from.
Composition of Earth
There are five major layers of the Earth that have formed: the inner core, the outer core, the mantle, the crust and the atmosphere
The different layers within the Earth are composed of different elements depending on their density. The more dense atoms would sink to the center and the least dense would stay on the surface.
Everything in the prezi is connected to the creation of Earth because without it none of this other stuff would be possible. So the connections will be made to the large concepts near the creation and will be indirrectly created by the creation of the Earth.
The outer core is also mostly composed of Iron and Nickel but is liquid.
The mantle is the highly viscous part of the Earth's internal structure and is generally made of SiO2 and MgO.
The Crust is the part of the Earth that life exists upon.
The inner core is mostly made of Iron and Nickel and is solid.
The temperature is about 5700 degrees kelvin and was even hotter when it was formed.
The outer core is the part of the Earth that generates the magnetic field of the world.
The mantle is the origin of all tectonic activities that have been the source of many other Earth processes.
The oceanic crust is mostly made of basaltic while the continental crust is made largely made of Granite and some other less dense felsic rocks.
Metamorphic rocks are ones that have been subjected to a lot of heat and pressure but did not fully melt such as marble and granite.
Igneous rocks were once completely molten and contain crystals that grow as material cools. Examples are Pumice and Basalt. Igneous rocks are generally found near or at the sites of either extinct or dormant volcanoes.
Ultra mafic rocks are composed of less than 45% SiO2 and have higher amounts of Fe and Mg. Ultra Mafic rocks are generally found in the mantle and are rarely seen on the surface.
Basic or Mafic
Mafic rocks have between 45 and 52% SiO2 and have higher amounts of Fe and Mg (which are both dense atoms).
Intermediate or Adesitic
Intermediate rocks are between 52 and 66% SiO2. Intermediate rocks have an intermediate viscosity.
Felsic or Acidic
These rocks have a high viscosity when molten and are greater than 60% SiO2 and also have higher amounts of Aluminum, Sodium and Potassium. For example, granite.
Mafic rocks have a lower viscosity when molten and is usually seen at mid ocean ridges or hot spots. An example of a mafic rock is basalt.
Convection involves the heat flowing from the movement of currents. The cooler rock at the surface moves towards the center while the hot rock moves towards the surface. The cool rock heats up and the process repeats. This movement drive both plate tectonics and the magnetic field around Earth.
Convection currents in the mantle force rock to move in circles, sliding against the surface plates, forcing them to move along these currents. As the plates move, they can separate, leaving a gap. A well known one is the mid atlantic ridge, where new crust is being formed. When plates collide, they can form mountain chains, but they can also form volcanoes from molten rock. Other types of volcanoes can form from hot spots, which are large reservoirs of molten rock near the surface, often leading to volcanoes directly above the hotspot. an example would be the Hawaiian islands. Plate tectonics also affect continental drift, constantly forming new crust and recycling the old crust.
The heated iron conducts some current, and through the geodynamo in the core, as well as magnetohydrodynamics, a magnetic field is produced around Earth. This field protects us from solar radiation that would otherwise be harmful to us.
Sedimentary rock is rocks formed from high pressure compressing fine grains or dust and combining them into rock.
Volcanoes are similar to mountains, but have formed by molten rock coming out of the ground, usually from a hot spot or tectonic movements. There are different types of volcanoes, and form differently depending on the viscosity of the molten rock below. Volcanoes can vary in eruption power, with small non-viscous lava flows from the volcanos to massive super eruptions that can greatly affect the Earth. Often after an eruption, the ground sinks/collapses, and forms a caldera, a bowl like structure similar to a volcanic crater.
The Earth’s primitive atmosphere was mostly made of CO2 and other gases from all the volcanic activity. Oxygen did not become a big part of it until much later, after life came about, a lot of the CO2 was used to make energy, and turned into O2, eventually making our atmosphere to what we know today (mostly Nitrogen and Oxygen).
Weather in the atmosphere is caused by both the water cycle and air currents. The sun heats up the air, making it rise, and causing cooler air to take its place, causing wind. This causes air currents that drive weather on Earth, from storms to hurricanes to tornados (along with the water cycle).
Recently, humans have been contributing to the addition of CO2 and methane into the atmosphere. Both of these gases are greenhouse gases. The greenhouse effect happens when solar radiation tries to bounce back into space, but is kept in by the atmosphere, similar to a blanket that keeps the heat you emit. Because of the added levels, and an increase in the average temperature, scientists believe that the earth is warming, and have named this event global warming.
Since water is relatively light compared to other materials the Earth is made of, so the water eventually rose to the surface, and after the Earth cooled down enough, it rained down forming the oceans. After the oceans were formed, solar energy heats up the water, making water vapor, and affecting the air currents around the entire planet. The water gets cycled around the planet, evaporating, forming clouds, precipitating on the ground (or ocean) and returning to the ocean or ground water.
For example, sandstone and limestone.
Billions of years ago, minerals and substances came together to form a structured thing, made of organic material. Over time, it evolved to what we see as early forms of life, probably singular celled organisms living off water, and the CO2 and other gases in the atmosphere.
While this seems to go against the 2nd law of thermodynamics, there is enough entropy on Earth for a very small amount to be reorganized into life forms.
The Earth has only one natural satellite, which we see on most clear nights. Currently, we believe that the Moon was made from the leftovers of a collision between early Earth and a Mars- sized planet-oid sometime during the late heavy bombardment. The moon seems to be made of the same material as the crust and mantle of the Earth. The moon is about ¼ the size of Earth, yet it is close enough to exert a gravitational force on the planet. It isn’t enough to affect the ground, but it is enough to affect the ocean, and this causes the tides. if the Moon Earth and sun line up, this can cause the largest tides of the month (spring tides), and if the moon is at a right angle, it forms the smallest tides, (neap tides).