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Transcript of Psychodrama
Action approach where clients explore problems through role play to gain insight, foster creativity and shape behavioral skills
Even if about the past, make it in the here-and-now.
Beautiful web of intuition, physical action, imagination and dramatic creativity What is Psychodrama? “Theater of Spontaneity”
Developed methods from there that grew into psychodrama. What sparked this play? Revolves around the experience of seeing their perception of those with whom they have a relationship.
Creativity: explore life and cope.
Spontaneity: adequate response to a new situation or a novel response to an old situation; no anxiety but capability; “warming up”
Working in the here-and-now: Re-create difficult past situations, “Show me what is happening, as if it is happening now.” Important Ideas Encounter: when an individual connects to another in a meaningful way; true encounter “eye to eye; face to face;” role reversal.
Tele: like rapport; it is the cement that holds a group together; helps with self-awareness
Surplus Reality: Enactments that reflect the innate hopes and fears, even if beyond the limits of ordinary reality: What if?; can be used even with traumatic events; yet again helps with self-awareness. More Pivotal Points Do not go into a session with the intention to have a catharsis
It is a natural past but not a goal of therapy, for some the rediscovering of emotion will need to lead to more therapy
Insight occurs when an emotional experience is connected to an understanding: a lightbulb moment
Action Insight; Insight through others. Catharsis and Insight Reality Testing: trying out the behaviors in real life situation
Role Theory: We are all improvisational actors on the stage of life; playing our parts without scripts. The two R’s “Director”: producer, facilitator, and analyzer/observer.
Organize, warm up, and attend to what emerges
Do not press or tear down walls, but try different ways to unlock the door Who is the Group Leader? Director: therapist/facilitator, follower.
Protagonist: the one who presents the problem.
Auxiliary Egos: supporting players that portray the roles of others; PLAY OUT, INVESTIGATE, INTERPRET, and GUIDE.
The Audience: identifies with the players, “mirror.”
The Stage: where the enactment takes place. The Basics Warm-up phase
Sharing and Discussion The Three Phases Establishing trust and cohesion
Finding a group theme
Find a protagonist
Move the protagonist onto the stage
sense of trust and safety
receptivity to intuitions, images, and feelings
element of playfulness
willingness to take risks and try new behaviors Warming Up Shedding light on underlying thoughts and feelings.
Director helps focus the client: “Be your father. What would he typically say to you? Show us a scene.”
Create scene and pick auxiliaries
One or several scenes
Hopefully, common themes will emerge between members
Behavioral practice: facilitates closure, translates group learning to everyday life Action! Self-presentation: protagonist gives a self-portrait to start a situation.
Role Reversal: looking at oneself through another’s eyes, director may “interview”
Double: auxiliary plays the protagonist’s “inner self,” expressing thoughts and feelings, protagonist can correct if wrong, sometimes multiple doubles
Soliloquy: stop action, walk around the stage, and say what they are feeling.
The Empty Chair: vehicle for technique of role reversal without auxiliary, maybe mother you just passed away.
Mirror Technique: auxiliary does the same thing and ideas as protagonist.
Future Projection: anticipated event is enacted in the present
The Magic Shop: Imagining and creating a shop that has many bottle of different personal qualities, exchange for one personal quality for a new one.
Replay: Retrying a scene, helps awareness and intensify the sense of ownership.
Role Training: Experiment with new behaviors in the safety of the group. Facet of Procedures and Techniques Classical psychodrama is too intense for young kids, but role play works for them
Action oriented models are good for them
Great for grief, addictions, aggression, anxiety, depression, mental health, really anything.
Multicultural populations: it is best they engage in their own tongue, less detached Populations Action, actually showing what they feel
More chances to try and understand behaviors
It can be used for individual, group, family and couples
Easily integrated with other theories: Adlerian, CBT, REBT, Reality therapy, and Gestalt.
Pitfalls: Therapist has to be very humble and continuously hone the skills.
Individuals with serious disturbances, PTSD
Personal problems of therapist may arise
Slow Progress of the clients Strengths and Weaknesses Corey, G. (2012). Theory and practice of group counseling. Belmont, CA: Brooks/Cole-Thomson Learning.
Kipper, D.A. & Hundal, J. (2003). A survey of clinical reports on the application of psychodrama. Journal of group psychotherapy, psychodrama, and sociometry, 55(4), p141-157.
Kim, K.W. (2003). The effects of being a protagonist in psychodrama. Journal of Group Psychotherapy, Psychodrama & Sociometry 55(4), p115-127 Sources Sharing: non-judgemental statements about oneself.
Discussion of the entire group of what is shared.
Auxiliaries: share what they felt in the roles, then share about how it touched their own life
Do not offer advice or analysis to protagonist, always talk about personal insights
Closure: does not mean an issue is resolved, rather that they express how they were affected
Apply, summarize, support, make plans, have a closing ritual (if appropriate) Share and Discuss