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Higher BAROQUE ERA

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Gillespies Music

on 12 September 2014

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Transcript of Higher BAROQUE ERA

Instrumental Music - SECULAR
Basso Continuo
Bass line (basso continuo) played by cello, double bass or bassoon.

In addition the harpsichord, organ or lute player was expected to fill in harmonies built on that bass line using the figured bass.
Baroque Suite
Fugue
A contrapuntal piece based on a theme

The
SUBJECT
is announced in
one voice part alone

The
ANSWER
is when the subject is
imitated
by other voices in close succession.

As the answer plays, the first part continues with the
counter subject
above.
Passacaglia
BAROQUE ERA
1600-1750

Baroque music takes its name from a very florid and decorated style of
architecture and art.

Instrumental music becomes more popular and more
secular
music is composed for enjoyment.

Ground Bass:

A theme in the bass which is repeated many times while the upper parts are varied.
Concertino:
In a Concerto grosso this is the name given to the
small, solo group of instrumentalists
as opposed to the main group, the Ripieno.
Concerto Grosso
A type of concerto in which a group of soloists
(concertino)
is combined and contrasted with a larger group
(ripieno).

Ripieno:
In Baroque music, especially Concerto grosso, the term means the
main group
of instrumentalists as opposed to the small/solo group which was known as the Concertino.
Movement 1 in a Concerto Grosso
Ritornello Form:
In a
Concerto grosso
, the
ritornello
is the
main theme played by the
Ripieno
group
(the orchestra) and sometimes by
Concertino
(the soloists).
Sections alternate between the ripieno and concertino playing. Episodes are the sections played by the soloists.

Ritorello (main theme)
Episode 1
Ritornello
Episode 2


A collection of dances:

Sometimes a suite would start with a prelude (a short, introductory piece. )

Allemande:
4/4 time, moderate tempo


Courante
: 3/4 time, fast tempo.


Sarabande:
triple time, slow tempo.


Gigue:
compound time, fast tempo.


Two types of answer:

1.TONAL ANSWER:
After the
subject
is played, the same tune appears in another voice or part in the dominant (a 5th higher or a 4th lower). This is called the
answer
. If the intervals of the answer are
NOT
exactly the same as the subject, the answer is said to be
tonal
.
2.
REAL ANSWER
:
If the intervals of the
answer ARE
exactly the same as the
subject,
the answer is said to be
real.
Stretto:
Where voices or instruments enter very quickly one after the other, as in
Fugue. Each entry or part enters closely after the previous part, thus adding tension and excitement.
Canon:
Strict imitation. After one part starts to play or sing a melody, another part enters shortly afterwards with exactly the same melody.
Passacaglia:
Variations over a ground bass.
Baroque Vocal Music
Early church music known as
plainsong
was sung in
unison
without accompaniment,
a cappella

By 12th century composers made the vocal lines more interesting by using
many notes to one syllable known as MELISMA.




SYLLABIC word setting is used when there is one note per syllable.



ORATORIO
Usually a story from the
Bible
Scored for
soloists, chorus and orchestra.
It may include
recitatives
,
arias
,
duets
and
chorus
.
It is performed without acting or stage design.
Usually in English or German
Recitative:
A type of vocal writing where the music follows the
rhythm of speech
. It is used in
operas and oratorios
to
move the story or plot on.
Aria:
A song in an opera, oratorio or cantata with orchestral accompaniment.
Chorus:
A song written for SATB Choir and orchestra.
Handel: Composer of the Messiah
Mass
-
A sacred choral work using the five main sections of the Roman Catholic church liturgy.
- Latin text
- Polyphonic texture
- Usually sung a cappella.

Originally used in church worship, but in later years became a large-scale work for chorus, soloists and orchestra.
Listen to an extract from Bach's B minor Mass.
-Name the ornament demonstrated by the Strings before the soloist enters.
- Name the type of solo voice.
- Describe the word setting.
Passion
A type of oratorio dealing with the story of the Crucifixion as told by the four apostles (Matthew, Mark, Luke and John).

- Text is in German
- Features
chorales
as well as
recitatives, arias
and
choruses.

Listen to Bach's St. Matthew's Passion:
- Describe the texture.
- Identify two melodic concepts demonstrated by the orchestra.
Cantata
A small-scale oratorio for soloist, chorus and orchestra. The excerpt is from a Cantata by Bach which also has an instrumental obbligato.
Obligato
A prominent solo instrument part in a piece of vocal music.
Chorale
-A German hymn tune.
-Written in four parts for soprano, contralto (alto), tenor and bass.
-Usually homophonic in texture.

Some of these chorales were used by Bach in his oratorios and cantatas.
Suspension

This effect occurs when a note from one chord is held over to the next chord creating a discord, and is then resolved by moving one step to make a concord.
Full transcript