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Transcript of Greek Architecture
Constructed of white marble of ionic order in 427 BC and completed during the the Peloponnesian war. Had to be built in stages as wartime funding allowed.
Why they built the temple: an expression of Athen’s ambitious goal to defeat Sparta and become a world power. Nike = victory, and Athena was worshipped in this form, a goddess of victory in war and wisdom. The citizens worshipped the goddess in hopes of winning the long Peloponnesian War.. The Temple of Athena Nike The Ancient Agora, located northwest of the Acropolis, was the centre of the city and the focus of Athenian life.
It was organized by Peisistratus, who removed private houses from the agora, closed wells, and made it the center of Athenian government. A drainage system, fountains and a temple to the Olympian gods were built. In the 5th and 4th century BC there were temples constructed to Hephaestus, Zeus and Apollo. Ancient Agora of Athens GREEK ARCHITECTURE BY GRACE CHEN & SOPHIE DEE Greek architecture is best known for its temples and open-air theatres.
Most are now substantially intact ruins.
Buildings were raised on high ground so that its elegance and the effects of light on its surfaces can be viewed from all angles.
Roman architecture grew out of that of Greece’s.
Fun fact: the White House and Capital Building have Greek-style columns Architectural style is divided into 3 orders (styles).
-Doric Order (oldest, simplest, and most massive)
-Ionic Order (delicate, used for smaller buildings/interiors)
-Corinthian Order (not as popular, featured ornate tiers of curly leaves)
These serve as the basis of Classical architecture.
The construction of the Parthenon (made of marble) cost the Athenian treasury 469 silver talents.
(One talent was the cost for paying the crew of a warship for a month).
The Parthenon is a temple of Doric order with eight limestone columns at the façade, and seventeen at the flanks.
Accommodated an oversized statue of Athena, whom the Athenians considered as their patron. The Parthenon had a figure of Athena carved from ivory. She wore a gold toga and held a statue of Nike in her palm. Her other hand held a shield with a snake emerging from behind it. When the Roman Empire conquered Greece, they took the Athena Parthenos (the statue) as a way of breaking Greece's spirit. Construction began in 447 BC (when the Athenian Empire was at the height of its power).
It was completed in 438 BC, though continued to be decorated for another 6 years. The Parthenon's decorative sculptures are some of the best works of Greek art.
The Parthenon is seen as a symbol of Ancient Greece, democracy, western civilization and one of the world's greatest cultural monuments.
Currently, the Greek Ministry of Culture is trying to restore and reconstruct the structure The north frieze depicted an image of the Greeks heading into battle. The south frieze showed a victorious battle against the Persians. The east frieze showed Athena, Zeus, and Poseidon surrounded by a throng of other gods and goddesses.
The statue of Athena Nike in the cella (the inner sanctum) was made of wood. It had no wings and it was said that this was so that it could never leave the city of Athens.
Demolished by the Persians in 480 BC, then rebuilt in 435 BC.
The temple was demolished in 1686 by the Turks (it was later completely reassembled). Today, the Temple remains largely intact except for its missing roof and is undergoing a major reconstruction process. Its elaborate frieze can be seen in the Acropolis Museum.
This temple is an excellent example of the symmetry used in Greek architecture. Modern architecture is based off of the
practical dynamics of the Greeks for lasting and sturdy construction. Theatre at Epidauros The Theatre at Epidauros is an outdoor theatre in the Peloponnese discovered almost perfectly preserved in 1970.
It is considered to be one of the finest theatres in all of Ancient Greece.
The theatre was used for annual festivals, athletic events, dramatic competitions, and productions.
It was the most important centre of worship for Asklepoio, the god of healing.
Visitors from all around the world left inscribed records of their miraculous cures. The theatre was built by architect Polykleitos during 340-300 BCE out of masonry.
It was built on a slope creating banked tiers of audience seats that can hold 14,000 people in 55 rows. On the floor of the theatre is an orchestra (dancing place), where 15 members of the Greek Chorus recited during the performance of a play.
The stage, behind the orchestra, represented either a temple or a palace. There was a painted backdrop that never changed during the performance. Today, the Theatre at Epidauros is still used for an annual summer festival of classical drama. Every imaginable trade was represented in and around the Agora.
There was also
The edge of the Agora had three arcades or "stoas" that were the busiest parts of the marketplace. Greeks conducted business and talked with friends. The centre of the Agora contained flimsy stalls, hastily built and crowded together.
They conducted many types of merchandising and trading. The Agora was organized:
On the north side were barbers, money changers, bankers, and fishmongers.
On the east were merchants.
On the west were free men seeking employment.
On the south was the bronze casting trade. Propylaea The Propylaea was considered one of the most spectacular temple sanctuaries in the ancient world.
Entrance to the Acropolis was controlled by the Propylaea.
It was important that people not ritually clean be denied access to the sanctuary. Run away slaves and miscreants could not enter where they could claim the protection of the gods. Contruction began in 437 BCE under the direction of Athenian leader Percicles.
Construction was terminated in 432 BCE when the building was still unfinished.
The sanctuary was made of white pentelic marble, grey Elusinian marble, and limestone. For the structure, Iron was also used. It comprises of a central building and two lateral wings. The colonnades( long sequence of columns) along the west and east sides had a row of Doric columns while two rows of Ionic columns divided the central corridor into three parts. Sources
-Kemgan, Michael. Ancient Greece and the Mediterranean. Chelsea House Publications: New York.
-J. Stafford, Emma. Ancient Greece. Random House Inc: New York.
-Pearson, Anne. Ancient Greece. Chelsea House Publications: New York.
-Mnesicles' Propylaea. Retrieved March 8th 2013 from http://www.reconstructions.org/mor/pages/frames/mor_propylaea_exhibit/mor_propylaea_frame.html.
-The Propylaea. Retrieved March 9th 2013 from http://www.greece-athens.com/page.php?page_id=6
-Athens Things To Do. Retrieved March 5th 2013 from http://www.virtualtourist.com/travel/Europe/Greece/Prefecture_of_Attica/Athens-426812/Things_To_Do-Athens-TG-C-1.html
-History: Greek Architecture. Retrieved March 4th 2013 from http://rav-historyofwesternarts.blogspot.ca/2010/06/greek-architecture.html A recreation in modern materials of the lost statue. This is housed in a full-scale replica of the Parthenon in Nashville’s Centennial Park. It the largest indoor sculpture in the western world. -The Parthenon. Retrieved March 4th 2013 from http://www.ancient-greece.org/architecture/parthenon.html
-Temple of Athena Nike. Retrieved March 5th 2013 from http://www.goddess-athena.org/Museum/Temples/Nike.htm
-Greek Architecture. Retrieved March 2nd 2013 from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Greek_architecture
-The Temple of Athena Nike. Retrieved March 7th 2013 from http://www.ancient-greece.org/architecture/athena-nike.html Supporting columns have a base, shaft, and capital. The capital was often styled as animal horns or plant leaves.
Above it was the entablature, which had 3 layers: the architrave, frieze, and cornice.
The frieze was decorated with elaborate moldings and ornamentation.
These columns are still used in modern architecture - they span porches or of private residences or the entrances to large city buildings or museums.