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Transcript of European Union
The Beginnings of Cooperation The six founders are:
Germany Aim: The European Union is set up with the aim of ending the frequent and bloody wars between neighbors, which culminated in the Second World War. EU countries stop charging custom duties when they trade with each other. 1960 - 1969 The ‘Swinging Sixties’
A Period of Economic Growth They also agree joint control over food production, so that everybody now has enough to eat - and soon there is even surplus agricultural produce. They also signed another treaty on the same day creating the European Atomic Energy Community (Euratom) for cooperation in developing nuclear energy. Created a single set of institutions for the three communities which were collectively referred to as the European Communities (EC) The Merger Treaty Jean Rey presided over the first merged Commission (Rey Commission). The First Enlargement 1970 - 1979 Denmark, Ireland and the United Kingdom join the European Union on 1 January 1973, raising the number of member states to nine. The EU regional policy starts to transfer huge sums to create jobs and infrastructure in poorer areas. In 1979, the first direct, democratic elections to the European Parliament were held. Norway had negotiated to join at the same time but Norwegian voters rejected membership in a referendum and so Norway remained outside. The Changing Face of Europe
The Fall of the Berlin Wall 1980 - 1989 November 9, 1989, the Berlin Wall was pulled down and the border between East and West Germany is opened for the first time in 28 years leads to the reunification of Germany when both East and West Germany are united in October 1990. Greece joined in 1981, Portugal and Spain in 1986. In 1985, the Schengen Agreement led the way toward the creation of open borders without passport controls between most member states and some non-member states. A treaty which provides the basis for a vast six-year program aimed at sorting out the problems with the free-flow of trade across EU borders and thus creates the ‘Single Market’. Single European Act (1986) In 1993 the Single Market is completed with the the 'four freedoms' of: movement of goods, services, people and money. 1990 - 1999 A Europe without frontiers In 1995 the EU gains three more new members, Austria, Finland and Sweden. The European Union was formally established when the Maastricht Treaty came into force on 1 November 1993. Further Expansion 2000 – 2009 It meant a greater emphasis on citizenship and the rights of individuals, an attempt to achieve more democracy in the shape of increased powers for the European Parliament, a new title on employment, a Community area of freedom, security and justice, the beginnings of a common foreign and security policy (CFSP) and the reform of the institutions in the run-up to enlargement. The Amsterdam Treaty(1999) Italy
and the Netherlands Berlin Wall The euro is the new currency for many Europeans. the EU saw its biggest enlargement to date when Cyprus, the Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia,Lithuania, Malta, Poland, Slovakia and Slovenia joined the Union then Romania and Bulgaria became the EU's members on January 1, 2007 followed in 2008 by Cyprus and Malta, by Slovakia and Iceland in 2009. The new decade starts with a severe economic crisis, but also with the hope that investments in new green and climate-friendly technologies and closer European cooperation will bring lasting growth and welfare. 2010 – Today A decade of opportunities and challenges Estonia and Croatia joined in 2011 Solidarity Policies To fund its policies, the European Union has an annual budget of more than €120 billion. What Does the EU do? The main purpose of the solidarity policies is to support the completion of the single market and to correct any imbalances by means of structural measures to help regions lagging behind or industrial sectors encountering difficulties.
(b) The common agricultural policy (CAP) (a) Regional aid (c) The social dimension Innovative Policies Addressing the real challenges facing society: environmental protection, health, technological innovation, energy, etc. (a) The environment and sustainable development. Paying for Europe:
The EU Budget Objectives the promotion of peace and the well-being of the Union's citizens.
an area of freedom, security and justice without internal frontiers.
sustainable development based on balanced economic growth and social justice.
a social market economy - highly competitive and aiming at full employment and social progress
a free single market. Free movement of capital, i.e. one can take their goods/money/etc to another EU country without restrictions Achievements of EU No need to travel with passport Not being stopped at the border by police Diplomatic/consular authorities of any EU country will protect EU citizens, regardless of citizenship Discrimination on the basis of nationality is prohibited No need for a visa when working in other EU countries Freely start a business anywhere in Europe as if one was a local Freedom of trade i.e. one can sell products/services to other European nations without any impediment Consumers enjoy equally high protection rights irrespectively of where in the EU the product/service was purchased University students can study anywhere in the European Union University students receive a rich education without asking the bank for a loan Issues challenging EU Territorial and Boundary Disputes between the states belonging to EU.
Fight Against Terrorism.
Creation of a central bank to supercede the national bank of its members.
Conflicting programs between members.
Composition of the Eurozone.
Fear of other members for misuse of budget. How EU works? Main Decision-making body.
Has Legislative power.
Has to agree unanimously on important questions.
Qualified majority voting is being used. The Council of the European Union Initiator of of the Union's major Policies.
Deals with pressing issues through the Common Foreign and Security Policy (CSFP) European Council Political supervision over the EU's activities and takes part in the legislative process.
Equal responsibility for adopting the EU budget.
Democratic supervision over the Union. The European Parliament Upholds common interest.
"Guardian of Treaties"
EU's Executive arm.
It has wide powers to manage the EU's policies. European Commission Solidarity Policies Innovative Policies Paying for Europe:
The EU Budget