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Chapter 11: Biosocial Development

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Briana Omori

on 16 April 2014

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Transcript of Chapter 11: Biosocial Development

Special Needs
Health Problems in Middle School
Health Problems increase a child's self consciousness.
Learning health habits is especially vital before adolescence.
Chapter 11: Biosocial Development
Learning Disabilities
Brain Development
Education and Psychopathology
Special Education
Changing Laws and Practices
Three Types of LRE
Response to Intervention (RTI):
Early grade children who are below average in achievement are given special intervention (345).
Individual Education Plan
A document that specifies educational goals and plans for a child with special needs (345).
Cohort and Culture
A ratio of a person's height to weight
Having a BMI over the 85th Percentile
Having a BMI above the 95th percentile
BMI (body mass index)
Obesity in North America has more than doubled since 1980.
Overweight children more commonly have asthma, high blood pressure, and elevated cholesterol.
As an average child gains weight, it is common for their school achievements to decrease, their self esteem to fall, and their loneliness increase,
There is no single cause for obesity.
Common influences of Obesity
1. Genetically disposed
2. Parenting Practices have changed
3. Social Policies
Labeling vs. diagnosed symptoms
1970's - "Mentally retarded"

2000's - "Intellectually disabled"
5% - autistic & 6% - developmentally delayed
Rates of asthma are highest among school aged children, and have tripled since 1980.
Chronic inflammatory disorder of the airways that makes breathing difficult
Asthma is:
*Children born during the 1970's vs. children in the 2000's.

Conclusion: Labels change depending on their timeline.
Ethnicity Matters: due to genes and culture
Common causes
Gifted and Talented
Genetic Roots
Air Pollution
Hygiene Hypothesis:
Children are too hygienic. They do not contract minor infections and diseases that would strengthen their immune systems.
Primary Prevention
Tertiary Prevention
Secondary Prevention
Changes in the entire Society
Better Ventilation
Fewer Cockroaches
Fewer Antibiotics
More Outdoor Play
Decreases asthma attacks in high risk children
Less dust and smoke
No Cats or Cockroaches
Less breast feeding if asthma runs in the family
Using injections and inhalers
Using Hypoallergenic Materials
Does not halt asthma but can help asthmatic children
Developmental Psychopathology:
(the field that uses insights into typical development to understand and remediate development disorders) links the study of typical development with the study of disorders.
4 General Principals of Development:

1) Abnormality is normal
2) Disability changes year by year
3) Life may be better or worse in adulthood
4)Diagnosis and treatment reflect the social context.

2 basic principles of development
Multifinality= one cause can have multiple final manifestaons
Equifinality= one symptom can have many causes
Least Restrictive Environment (LRE):
Assigning children with special needs to educational information they are able to learn (344).
Targeted tutoring (344)
Educating children with special needs with other children in a regular class (344).
Children with special needs are "included" in a general classroom, with "appropriate aids and services" (344).
What is middle childhood?
Ensuring Safety
Period between early childhood and early adolescence
Ages 6-11
A Healthy Time
1. Education about risks
2. Doses of vaccine
Few fatal diseases or accidents occur during these years
Healthiest period of the entire life span
Genetic and environment factors (
nature and nurture
) are the safeguard for middle childhood
What are the characteristics that develop?
Self-care (e.g. brushing teeth to getting dressed and from making lunch to walking to school with friends)
Body Improvements
Food Habits
Slower Growth -> Greater Activity
Pace: slow and steady
Self-sufficient (independent)
Aren't easily side tracked (e.g. sit at desk and do work without breaking pencils, tearing paper, or elbowing classmates)
Muscles (heart, arms, and lungs) increase in strength and capacity
Children run faster and exercise longer
Few are malnourished
Try new foods
Earlier malnutrition:
Children from the poorest nations = several inches shorter than from richer ones

Short ones are overweight and continue to have poor health
Better overall health
Less obesity
Appreciation of cooperation and fair play
Improved problem-solving abilities
Respect for teammates and opponents of many ethnicities and nationalities
Loss of self-esteem (teammates and coaches are sometimes cruel)
Injuries (e.g. "Little League elbow")
Reinforcement of prejudices (e.g. gender)
Increased stress (e.g. altered hormone levels, insomnia)
Physical Activity
Children play joyfully ("fully and totally immersed")
Benefits vs. Hazards
that last a lifetime
3 Possibilities of Physical Activity
Neighborhood Games
Rules and boundaries adapt according to the surroundings
(e.g. out of bounds = "past the tree")
Exercise in School
Athletic Clubs and Leagues
This form of play is active, interactive, inclusive, and teaches ethnics.
Social exclusion:
Steep price to pay for going by their own rules
A century ago, 90% - rural areas
Now, a majority - urban/shantyhouses

e.g. 1990 - less than 4 million live in metropolitan, Dallas, Texas
2010 - 7 million
Parents keep children at home because of "Stranger danger."

Greater chance for a child's health to be in jeopardy (obesity) than being abducted.
Indoor activities:
Homework, television, and video games
Australian vs. Americans
Neighborhood play vs. physical education
U.S. Cross Section of 10k students: 2/3 have 15 mins. of recess
School time
recess & physical education; in gym class, a child's sit and wait time is more than if he/she was moving.
Private & Nonprofit club organizations
Culture and family
Best well-known organized recreation program:
Little League Baseball
Children (low-income, not well coordinated, disabled) rarely belong to athletic clubs
Sports activities and academic performance
Many people have some specific learning disability

* Learning Disability: A marked delay in a particular area of learning

A form of learning disabilities are; Dyslexia and Autism
Dyslexia: Unusual difficulty with reading. It is the most most commonly diagnosed learning disability
Autism: a developmental disorder marked by an inability to relate to other people normally, extreme self-absorption and inability to acquire normal speech
Measuring The Mind 334-336pg
middle child hood is also time when some disorders can be made less serious if treatment is early & targeted.
treatment is more likely to succeed the earlier it begins but accurate diagnosis is more difficult the younger a child is because some are comorbid and some symptoms differ by age.
especially relevant in middle childhood because it is the time when children are grouped by age and expect to learn on schedule which reveals problems in children who differ from their peers.
Attention-deficit order
focus on 3 topics
ADHD are inattentive, impulsive, and overactive
about twice as many boys then girls
12% of boys and 6% of girls in middle childhood
tend to have academic difficulties
less likely to graduate highschool and college
ethnicity has something to do with it
more european americans then latinos
rate has also gone up in europe
ADD= difficulty paying attention, 10% of all children have this

ADHD= ADD plus uncontollable urges to be active
Bipolar disorder
caused by extreme mood swings from Euphoria to depression

expiriencing at least one episode of grandiosity ( maybe thinnking they are a pure genious and then other time so depressed they cant even read)
1) counseling and training
2) showing teachers how to help the child learn
3) medication
these diseases are more common in children whose parents have disorders as well
linked to unusual brain patterns in structure and activity
Increase everyday tasks and activities that require coordination.
Incorporate physical exercise as a means of enhancing children's coordination.
Use games to help your children build coordination and dexterity.
Sign your children up for martial arts classes to improve coordination.
Coordinating Connections 332-334pg
Aptitude, Achievement, and IQ
Criticisms of Testing
Brain Scans
Should they be included or left alone?
100 years ago, the definition of gifted = High IQ: (Intelligence quotient)
Who is considered a gifted child?
Is it through intelligence, talents, or creativity?
Educational Environment for the gifted?
To educate gifted children with other children of the same mental age (doesn't depend on chronological age).
Precocious of Gardner's nine intelligences
Bullied, unhappy, never learned proper social skills
Whole child, not just the mind
Divergent Thinkers
Convergent Thinkers
and makes the child feel
Also increases brain development
for creative thinkers
for creative thinkers
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