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Technological Advances in Field Hockey
Transcript of Technological Advances in Field Hockey
Some technological changes in Field Hockey over time include the material that hockey sticks are made out of, the shape of hockey sticks. and finally the introduction of different techniques of shoting including a shot called drag flicking
Changes in Hockey Stick's Materials
When hockey first started out in ancient egyptian times bamboo was used as a hockey stick. Since then different kinds of wood was introduced to make the stick. At first the stick was made of two parts attached together, The head and the handle.
Inprovement of Hockey Sticks
But with better technologies they started making hockey sticks with boths parts being cut from the same peice of wood making it one solid piece. At one point the handles were made of metal but this was soon banned. In 1980s fibreglass, carbon fibre and aramid began to be used.
Modern Materials in Hockey Sticks
The indroduction of fibreglass and carbon fibre increased the sticks power strength and made the sticks a lot lighter. Today you can get up to 100% carbon fibre hockey sticks which are very powerful and light.
Changes in Hockey Stick's Shape
Changes in Head Shape
Changes in Stick Bow
Head shapes of hockey sticks used to only turn 90°. This was due to making a wooden stick curve more would be too hard to make in those times. However over time the head has almost increased its angle to doing a full 180 turn. This head shape is called a hook.
When hockey first started hockey sticks did not generally have a bow. But as people realised that bows could add to power and control, tests were done on differents types and angles of bows. This wasn't done until the late 1900s. Now there are 3 main 'bows'; High, Mid and Low.
Changes in Technique (Drag Flick Shot)
What is a Drag Flick
A drag flick is a shot used in hockey that is generally used in a set play called a penalty corner. In which the attacking team has to pass the ball from the bass line, outside the 'D' and then can shoot. While the defending team has only 4 defenders and a goalkeeper. In the past a straight hit was used. Now dragflicks are used.
Steps to a Drag Flick
1. A player runs in and leaps into posistion. (left and just infront of ball)
2. Places stick behind the ball and drags ball forward while getting low.
3. The arms cross over creating a flicking motion that accelerates the ball towards the goals.
4 . The ball flys into the goals.
Biomechanical Reasons for Stick Material Changes
Reasons why sticks are now made out of carbon fibre, glass fibre and aramid is because it allows the stick to be lighter while still having as much or more strength than a wooden stick. Therefore since the stick is lighter the player can move the stick faster because of Newton‘s 2nd Law.
Biomechanical Reasons for Stick Shape Changes
Reasons for Stick Head Changes
Reasons for Stick Bows
Reasons why hockey stick head shapes changed were that it increased the range of the hockey stick and increased the area of the head to ensure a bigger sweetspot and a bigger area of coverage so there is more margin for error in trapping the ball. The hook also allows for players to spin with the ball caught in the hook.
Each bow is better for different things, such as...
The low bow is good for dragflicking and flicking the ball in the air due to the severe angle that is acted upon the ball on contact. And the Mid bow is better for dribbling, hitting the ball on the ground and tomahawking.
Biomechanical Principles Related to Dragflicking
Usage of Levers
During a drag flick a third-class lever is used in a flinging action to propell the ball at the goals. During the flinging motion the left (top) hand stops and pulls back while the right (bottom) hand, holding on low down the shaft, pushes forward with all its might. The hands cross over through the flick creating the third-class lever.
Summation of Momentum
Dragflicking uses the efficient transfer of momentum though the shot to create the most force applied to the ball. It starts with a leap into the shot, which the momentum is then transfered to the pelvis and hip's rotation which transfers to the arms where the arms and stick propell the ball in a flinging action at the goals.
How Changes have Improved the Performance of Hockey
The changes in head and bow shape and the materials of sticks have made the game a lot faster due to the quality of the equipment. Also it is now played on synthetic turf and not grass. The introduction of dragflicking has dramically made it more high scoring.
The amount of Skill in the Game Today
Due to all the changes in the game of hockey it has allowed players to use a lot more skill. With the allowance of tomahawks, dragflicks and lifting the ball. Here are some elite hockey players showing off their skills.
Changes Playing Conditions
From in the 1800s to now, there has been some big changes in what the surface of hockey fields are made of. When hockey first started out it was played on grass pitches. It wasn't until the 1970s that sand based turf pitches were introduced. And soon later water based pitches were made.
Rule Changes Due to Technological Advances
Some rules like having to shoot from inside the D and not allow to dangerously raise the ball have been introduced because the power in the new sticks and the hardness of the ball made these things risking players saftey. Having metalic materials in hockey sticks was banned due to players being injured by them in the 80s.