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Second language acquisition/learning
Transcript of Second language acquisition/learning
Distinction between learning and acquisition
Focus on method
Many approaches were designed recently to improve L2 learning. These approaches reflected different theoretical views on how an L2 might be best learned.
a language that is not generally spoken in the surrounding community
The grammar-translation approach
*the traditional form of language teaching, with vocabulary lists and sets of grammar rules.
* memorization is encouraged, and written language rather than spoken language is emphasized
* criticized as it leaves students quite ignorant of how the language might be used in everyday conversation.
The audiolingual approach
* a mid-twentieth-century approach to language teaching, with repetitive drills used to develop fluent spoken language as a set of habits
* criticized as it has no resemblance to the interactional nature of actual spoken language use, and as it can be incredibly boring
The conscious process of accumulating knowledge , such as vocabulary and grammar, in an institutional sitting
The gradual development of ability in a language by using it naturally in communicative situations.
Difference between Second language and Foreign language
In addition to insufficient time, focus and motivation, there are many affective factors
Acquisition barriers during teenage:
being more self-conscious than younger children
feeling uncomfortable because of dull books or unpleasant classroom surroundings
feeling stressed because of an exhausting schedule of study and/or work
Two kinds of transfer:
the interim system of L2 learners, which has some features of the L1 and L2 plus some that are independent of the L1 and the L2
* a new approach to language teaching that is based on learning through using language in communicative situations rather than learning about language
* emphasizes on functions of language (what it is used for) rather than forms of the language
* The principal change in the area of L2 learning in recent years has been a shift from concern with the teacher, the text book and the method to an interest in the learner and acquisition process.
* Toleration of "errors" is adopted. It does not prevent a student's progress, but it is a clue to his progress as he tries out ways of communicating
Focus on learner
(also called "crosslinguistic influence") means using sounds, expressions or structures from the L1 when performing in the L2
the use of a feature from the L1 that is similar to the L2 while performing in L2
(sometimes called interference )
the use of a feature from the L1 (that is really different from the L2) while performing in the L2
e.g. marking plural on the ends of nouns in both languages English and Spanish
more common in early stages of L2 learning
e.g. putting the adjective after the noun as in Arabic
e.g. She name is Maria
Having motivation is important to learn a language.
Learners may have instrumental or integrative motivation:
when someone wants to learn the L2 in order to achieve some other goal, such as completing a school graduation requirement or being able to read scientific publications, but not for any social reason
when someone wants to learn the L2 for social purposes, in order to take part in the social life of a community using that language and to become an accepted member of that community
Input and output
the language that an acquirer / learner is exposed to
the language produced by an acquirer / learner
Input has to be comprehensible ( we can't process what we don't understand)
Input can be made comprehensible by being simpler in structure and vocabulary
as in the variety of speech called foreigner talk
dealing with this large scale of practical studies involving language is often described as
Producing comprehensible output is important in the learner's development of L2, yet it is one of the most difficult things to provide in large L2 classes. this problem can be solved by what is called task-based learning
different tasks ad activities in which learners have to interact with each other, usually in small groups or pairs, to exchange information or solve problems.
The goal of such activities is not that the learners will learn more about the L2, but that they will develop communicative competence in the L2.
this unit attempts to investigate the complex nature of L2 learning. Many ideas were presented not only from linguistic analysis, but from other fields such as communication studies, education, psychology and sociology.
a language that is spoken in the surrounding community