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Nursing Care of Patient's with Common Anemia's, Common Bleeding Disorders, and Blood Transfusions

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by

Kim Cook

on 2 April 2011

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Transcript of Nursing Care of Patient's with Common Anemia's, Common Bleeding Disorders, and Blood Transfusions

Nursing Care of Patient's with Common Anemia's,
Common Bleeding Disorders, and Blood Transfusions Topic 1: A review of Hematology-

Learning Objectives:
1. Summarize the pathophysiology of the hematologic system.
2. Describe the usual components of the hematological assessment

Buzz words and thoughts:
• Blood components
• Connective tissue
• Protection
• Clotting
• CBC
• Iron
• Reticulocyte count
• Iron
• Ferritin
• TIBC
• Vit B12/Folate
• Bleeding times

Assignments:
1. Read chapters 11-12 in text
2. Review Prezi
3. Group Projects - Developing Care Plans for Patient's with Anemia

Topic 2: Gerontologic Considerations

Learning Objective:
Describe hematological changes associated with aging

Buzz words and thoughts:
• Cell loss and organ atrophy
• Decrease bone marrow and stem cells
• Clotting problems
• Decreased oxygen
• Prone to infection
Topic 3: Definition of Common Anemia's

Learning Objectives:
1. Review the pathophysiology of anemia
2. Describe the hematological changes associated with anemia
3. Compare and contrast the most common types of anemia:
Hypoproleferative and Hyperproliferative
Hypo -
• Iron deficiency
• Megaloblastic
• Glucose 6 phosphate dehydrogenase
• Immunohemolytic
• Aplastic
Hyper-
• Hemochromatisis
• Polycythemia Vera


Buzz Words and Thoughts:
• Decreased production
• Increased destruction
• Blood loss
• CBC
• Iron
• Reticulocyte count
• Iron
• Ferritin
• TIBC
• Vit B12/Folate
• Bleeding times
• Causes
• Lab findings
• Clinical manifestations
• Management
Nursing Care of Patient’s with Common Anemia’s,
Common Bleeding Disorders, and Blood Transfusions Assignments:
1. Read Chapters 11 and 12
2. Review Prezi
3. Projects - Care Plans for Patient's with Common Anemias Topic 1: A Review of Hematology

Learning Objectives:
1. Summarize the pathophysiology of the hematologic system.
2. Describe the usual components of the hematological assessment

Buzz Words and Thoughts:
• Blood components
• Connective tissue
• Protection
• Clotting
• CBC
• Iron
• Reticulocyte count
• Iron
• Ferritin
• TIBC
• Vit B12/Folate
• Bleeding times
Topic 2: Gerontologic Considerations

Learning Objective:
Describe the Hematologic Changes Associated with Aging

Buzz Words and Thoughts:
• Cell loss and organ atrophy
• Decrease bone marrow and stem cells
• Clotting problems
• Decreased oxygen
• Prone to infection
Topic 4: Nursing Care for Common Anemias

Learning Objectives:
1. Describe the general clinical manifestations and complications of anemia
2. Identify and prioritize common diagnoses in the care of clients with anemia.
3. Describe the nursing interventions developed for clients with anemia
4. Explain the purpose, action, and nursing implications of drugs used in the management of anemia

Buzz Words and Thoughts:
• General complications
• Skin
• Cardiovascular
• Musculoskeletal
• Neurologic
• Respiratory
• Gastrointestinal
• Ineffective tissue perfusion
• Activity intolerance
• Fatigue
• Decreased cardiac output
• Expected outcomes
• Medical management
• Nursing management
• Iron
• Vitamin B12
• Vitamin B6
• Blood products
Topic 5: Sickle Cell Disease

Learning Objectives:
1. Describe the pathophysiology of Sickle Cell Disease.
2. Discuss the nursing and collaborative management necessary to treat a client with sickle cell disease.
3. Identify and prioritize nursing diagnoses for a patient who is in Sickle Cell Crisis.

Buzz Words and Thoughts:
• Hereditary disease
• Sickle shaped RBC’s
• Oxygen deprivation
• Causes permanent damage to tissue
• Causes extreme pain
• Pain management
• Oxygen
• Comfort measures
• Pain
• Oxygenation
• Nutrition
• Fluid balance
• Tissue perfusion


Topic 6: Bleeding Disorders

Learning Objectives:
1. Describe the pathophysiology of common bleeding disorders
2. Compare and contrast the most common types of bleeding disorders
3. Describe the appropriate nursing interventions developed for clients with specific bleeding disorders

Buzz Words and Thoughts:
• Thrombocytopenia, hemophilia, von Willebrand disease, and disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC)
• Bleeding from gums, under skin, in joints
• Goal is to increase platelet production and decrease platelet destruction
• Consider cause of bleeding disorder
• Assess for tissue ischemia
• Immunosuppressive therapy for chronic condition
• Compromise of the hemostasis process
• Unusual, excessive bleeding
• Hidden bleeding
• Expected outcomes
• Autoimmune
• Thrombotic or nonimmune
• Platelet replacement – if indicated
• Treat underlying cause
• Stop the bleeding
• Teaching for chronic patients







Topic 7: Blood Transfusions

Learning Objectives:
1. Explain the roles of the nurse in the collaborative management of clients receiving transfusions of blood or blood components.
2. Discuss and prioritize nursing interventions necessary to treat common complications of blood transfusions

Buzz Words and Thoughts:
• Risks
• Benefits
• Alternatives
• Platelets
• Packed red blood cells
• Plasma
• Whole blood
• Strictly follow hospital protocol
• Hospital protocol to follow if reaction occurs
• Clinical manifestations of each reaction


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