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Mexicans and Mexican-Americans
Transcript of Mexicans and Mexican-Americans
Stigmas on Seeking Counseling
Role of Religion
Role of Family
When major decisions need to be made, the immediate and extended family are involved in the process
Father, or oldest male is head of household, hold the ultimate decision-making authority
Frequent interactions with family members include personal advice and emotional support
The elderly (grandparents) are considered wise and treated with respect; are seen as the "to-go" person for advice
Lack of health care; most are uninsured so they cannot afford to pay the services
Mainstream counseling and psychotherapy
conflict with those of many Mexican-American
Experiences with prejudice and discrimination
Level of acculturation
Familismo- Importance of family
Personalismo- Focus on Relationships
Respeto- Showing Respect
Religion and Spirituality- Religious leaders are highly respected
Traditional Gender Roles: Machismo and Marianismo
Fatalismo- "If it is God's will"
Factors that affect our girl students
2. Immigration status
3. Limited English Proficiency
4. Parent involvement
5. Gender and Ethnic stereotypes
7. Pregnancy and parenting responsibilities
8. Lower involvement in school activities
Religion is very sacred
Praying is an option that will make things "better" (rosary, saints, bible confession, candles)
80-90% of Mexicans and Mexican-Americans are Roman Catholics
Any problem is considered "God's will"
Church provides strong support system
Priest has the utmost respect and provides any necessary support
A professional in the health care field is second only to a priest
Poverty - Factors & Effects
In 2012, 33.8% of Hispanic children lived in poverty compared to 13.8% of White children
Low income schools (crowded classrooms, teacher with less experience, limited resources)
Low income communities (gangs, drugs, violence)
Migration - lack of employment and money causes families to move a lot.
Cannot qualify for federal financial aid
A diploma does not promise a good steady job
Lack of Positive Role Models
How can we help?
Connect Latinas with positive role models
to pursue and
prepare them for
School environment is
Educate parents, help them becomes more involved
Educate students on teen pregnancy, sex education, offer support for pregnant students and parent teens
Educate students on
post education possibilities
California AB 540 Law
Ways to Assist Students and Parents
Understanding the social and cultural history of the individual will aid in your decision of who to involve in the process.
If including the family, cooperation comes from empowering and educating them about what their role is in the recovery of the family member.
Assess the level of the individual's acculturation as some traditional beliefs may no longer apply.
Most important, put on your "cultural glasses" when you meet with Mexican clients and families, but focus your lenses on the individual.
1821 - Mexico gains independence from Spain and permits Stephen F. Austin to start Texas colonization.
1883 - Chinese Exclusion Act - Mexican workers are increasingly recruited.
1904 - Border patrol is established to stop Asian workers from coming into the United States through Mexico.
1910 - Mexican Revolution - Thousands flee across the border for safety.
1924 - Largely due to a lack of immigration quotas, more than 89,000 Mexicans come into the United States on permanent visas, making 1924 the peak year for Mexican immigration.
1942 - The bracero program begins, allowing Mexican to temporarily work in the United States – primarily in the agricultural industry.
1947 - A lawsuit by Gonzalo Mendez against many CA SDs causes Fed Dist Court to rule that segregation in schools is unconstitutional. This sets the judicial precedent for the Brown vs. Board of Education case, which repeals the "separate but equal" concept.
1965 - The Immigration and Naturalization Act of 1965 limits immigrants into the United States.
1996 - Clinton uses a strict approach to limiting illegal immigration in his re-election campaign in order to sway large electoral states, such as California and Texas. Under his direction, U.S. Border Patrols are bolstered, sensors are installed and 40 miles of 14-foot fence is built to deter the flow of illegal immigrants.
Hispanic Immigration Today
Unlike other races who have came in waves,
Hispanic immigration continues.
How can we help?
The fear of being labeled "crazy" or portrayed as "weak"
One's problems should be handled discreetly
Not being able to resolve own issues
Going against "machismo" role; talking about their problems and feelings is not allowed (sign of weakness)
Counseling and therapy will not provide a culturally sensitive treatment
Hispanic Immigration Trends Today
Realities of Incoming Hispanics
Pregnancy among Hispanics
Although Hispanics currently have the highest teen birth rates, they have also had a dramatic recent decline in rates. Since 2007, the teen birth rate has declined by 39% for Hispanics, compared with declines of 41% for blacks and 25% for whites.
Mexican American Legal Defense and Educational Fund
Take time to learn:
where are they from, what are their values and expectations
Communicate in their language:
if possible, or find a good translator
Work with gatekeepers:
gain trust by showing respect, being personal, and keeping your promises
Respect community values and traditions:
even if they are not the same as yours, look for strengths not just deficits
Do not make assumptions:
anticipate situations were you and your expectations may be different. When a behavior seems strange to you, consider the cultural setting before assuming someone is being rude.
As of 2012, the total of Hispanics in the US is almost 53 million. A growth of almost 18 million from 2000.
Almost 34 million of those are of Mexican descent, either born in the US or in Mexico.
Regardless of the situations they encounter and roadblocks, immigration will continue, and the population will continue to grow.
California continues to be the state with more Hispanic population, but more are moving or immigrating to other states where there could be more job opportunities.