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ireland

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Jimena Ramírez Chaves

on 7 April 2013

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Transcript of ireland

Ireland economy
culture
civics
government
provinces
attractions
sports
education
climate
personalities Economy The Irish economy is small and highly open. The value of internationally traded goods and services in 2011 was equivalent to 188 per cent of GDP, which amounted to €159 billion for the year. Compared to 2000, this represents an increase in the importance of internationally traded goods of 3.5 percentage points (Figure 1 below).

Services are the largest component of Irish output: in 2011 they accounted for 72 per cent of gross value added at factor cost, while industry and agriculture represented 26 per cent and 3 per cent of gross value added, respectively (Figure 2 below). Pharmaceutical products, food, and computer and electronic products accounted for 37.3 per cent, 18.6 per cent and 9.9 per cent of total gross industrial output in 2010.

Ireland’s population has grown strongly over the past decade. In 2011 it was 4.6 million, up 17 per cent from 2002. With an average age of 36.1 years in 2011, the population is relatively young compared to the rest of the EU.
Culture Civics GovernmentUnder the constitution of 1937, Ireland is a sovereign, independent, democratic state. It became a republic in 1949 when Commonwealth ties with Great Britain were severed.
Executive power under the Irish constitution is vested in a cabinet, which forms a government of some 15 Ministers. The Government is responsible to the lower house of the national legislature (The Dáil). The Taoiseach (prime minister) serves as head of government and is appointed by the President after nomination by the lower house. Members of the government head the administrative departments, or ministries. They are selected by the Taoiseach, approved by the Dáil, and appointed by the President. The President of Ireland is the head of state and is elected by direct popular vote for a 7-year term.

Ireland has a bicameral legislature known as the Oireachtas. The lower house, or Dáil Éireann, is directly elected by the public and now has 166 members. The upper house, or Seanad Éireann, has 60 members,11 appointed by the Taoiseach, 6 elected by the universities, and 43 chosen by an electoral college of some 900 representatives from local governments and the national legislature. The upper house is limited in authority, while the lower house has the power to support or bring down governments in the parliamentary tradition.

Judicial authority in Ireland is vested in a supreme court, a high court, a court of criminal appeal, a central criminal court, circuit courts, and district courts. The supreme court is the court of final appeal and plays a key role in constitutionality determinations. Judges are appointed by the president on the recommendation of the government.

Local Government is composed of county councils, county borough corporations, borough corporations, urban district councils, and town commissioners who administer local services, including health and sanitation, housing, water supply, and libraries. Local officials are popularly elected, usually for 5-year terms.
Government Provinces Attractions Sports
Jimena Ramirez Chaves
5B Lifestyle
The people of Ireland are known to be very hospitable and friendly in nature. Having a family life is considered of great importance in Ireland. The traditional ways of the Irish culture can be seen in the rural areas of Ireland. Here, a lot of traditional customs are followed which is quite a contrast to the modern life that is led in the urbane areas of Ireland. Ireland also has a large number of people who own their own palatial residencies.
Read more at Buzzle: http://www.buzzle.com/articles/irish-culture.html Professions and Industry
Farming in the Irish culture dates way back into history. In the olden days, the ownership of cattle was considered to be a status symbol. When it comes to farming, the males handle many activities that are related to it. Women are known to market some of the produce. In the past, men handled most of the affairs connected with the profession. Today, women have also taken up challenges in this area. At one time, agriculture was always the main activity. A large section of the production is exported internationally. The Irish farmers are known to use the latest methods for their farming needs. Some of the main products in agriculture are dairy and meat products, barley, turnips, wheat etc. The Irish industry has also flourished in areas of textiles, clothing, pharmaceuticals and even in the fishing industry.
Read more at Buzzle: http://www.buzzle.com/articles/irish-culture.html Religion
Although there is no official religion for Ireland, special consideration has been given to the Catholic Church. One can see the Roman Catholics, Methodists, Jewish, Presbyterianism and even a small percentage of other religions such as Islam existing in Ireland.

Music and Dance
The Irish are known for their love for music and dance. The traditional music of Ireland still has a strong foothold in the music scene despite the various influences from abroad. There are quite a number of bands that still play the traditional Irish music. The most famous amongst the musicians was Turlough Carolan who composed over 200 musical compositions. Celtic music is also considered to be a part of the Irish culture. Ireland also saw a lot of music groups gaining popularity on the international map. Towards the later period of the 20th century, Sean-nós had a major role to play in Irish music. Amongst the most honored in classical Irish music, Sir James Galway has always been considered to be an excellent flutist. Classical Irish music has seen its revival only in the past few years; this is primarily because of the divide of the island (North and South). The area of the Northern Ireland falls under UK and the Southern falls under the Republic of Ireland
Read more at Buzzle: http://www.buzzle.com/articles/irish-culture.html Ireland was divided up into counties by the English crown around 400 years ago. Since then, the counties have remained largely unchanged. In Northern Ireland they survive merely as curiosities - not having any actual purpose any more. In the Republic of Ireland, however, these historic divisions are still used as the basis of local government. The map below shows the 32 counties in the island of Ireland (26 in the Republic of Ireland and 6 in Northern Ireland) as well as some of the major towns (in italics). Every corner of Ireland has its own unique charm, but some features stand out as magnets that draw multitudes of visitors year after year. Below you will find details of some Irish tourist attractions that you really should not miss

Read more: Top 10 Tourist Attractions in Ireland - GoIreland

Dublin
Dublin Zoo is one of Ireland’s top attractions, with visitor numbers reaching 960,000 in 2010. Open since 1813, Dublin Zoo is Ireland’s biggest zoo, covering 24 hectares (59 acres) of Phoenix Park.


Read more: Top 10 Tourist Attractions in Ireland - GoIreland What sports are played in Ireland?

Although most common sports around the world can also be found in Ireland we do have some that are more unique traditional sports. once only found in Ireland today they too are being played all over the world, most of all in the UK, USA & Canada due to the large Irish communities in these countries. Here are some of the more common sports played in Ireland.

The traditional game of Irish Hurling

Irish Hurling is the best Irish cultured game next to Gaelic Football and is heavily promoted by the Gaelic Athletic Association (GAA). It’s a fast and ferrous game that will have you either on the edge of your seat or jumping in the air like a crazy. It’s a game that has lots of history and is played nationally in every county. Read more about the traditional game of Irish Hurling.

Traditional sport of Gaelic Football

Gaelic Football is also extremely popular in Ireland and is played by many people and again it’s a sport with much history and is usually played with plenty of Irish pride. It’s very similar and sometime compared to Aussie Rules football. Just like hurling it’s a fast game with plenty of edge, it too is heavily promoted by the GAA. Read more about Gaelic Football.

Play some of the best golf In Ireland

Golfing in Ireland has grown at an enormous rate with players from all round the world boarding ships and planes just to play a few holes in some of the best courses in the world, even champion players can’t resist the chance to play. Again with the amazing scenery in almost every course it isn’t difficult to have a great game.

Salmon & trout fishing in Ireland

Fishing in Ireland is an amazing experience for it is said that Ireland has the best Salmon and Trout fishing in Europe but also for the breath taking scenery of the countryside, which is enough to keep any keen fisherman at the edge of a river no matter what the weather or game, is like. education Levels of Education
Pre-School (up to age 4, approx)

Primary School (ages 5 to 12)

Post Primary/Second Level (ages 13 to 18 approx)

Vocational Education (including apprenticeships, etc.)

Third Level Education (University, Institute of Technology, Regional Technical College, College of Education for Teacher Training)
The Pre School and the Primary Education System
Many children enrol in pre-school prior to the age of five, with private Montessori schooling gaining in popularity in recent years. There are also a number of special schools for children of travellers, inner city children and children with special needs. Some grant aid is provided by Health Boards towards the running of these pre schools.
An Early Start programme was launched in 1995 with an aim of providing a formal structure for pre-schoolers. This was intended to be closely connected with primary schools and has been implemented in some schools. One side effect of this was to tighten up on regulations regarding the running of many home-based pre-schools, with the result that a number of these have now closed.


Most children will then move on to Primary school at about five years of age. The lower age of enrolment is four and the upper is six. This compares with an entry age between four and seven throughout European Union countries.

There are over three thousand primary schools serving five hundred thousand children throughout the country. The schools are staffed by twenty thousand teachers. Though this averages twenty five students per teacher, the reality is that many classes have as many as thirty five children each. This is balanced by the many one and two-teacher schools in rural areas. Indeed more than half of all primary schools have four teachers or less. In addition to these mainstream primary schools there are over a hundred Special Schools and a number of private primary schools. In recent years there is an upsurge in interest in Gaelscoileanna whose curriculum is conducted entirely in Irish.

Funding for the mainstream schools, including capital costs, salaries, etc., is predominantly from the exchequer, but is topped up by local contributions through parent committees. The private schools receive no funding from the state and the Gaelscoileanna must attain a certain size before funding is forthcoming.

The primary school curriculum is established on the advice of National Council for Curriculum and Assessment and is overseen by the inspectors of the Department of Education. The curriculum is much changed from what many people will recall and is based on the principles of " full and harmonious development of the child, with due allowances made for individual differences; the central importance of activity and guided-discovery learning and teaching methods; teaching and learning through an integrated curriculum and through activities related to the child's environment."
Post-Primary Education (Second Level)
Over three hundred and fifty thousand students receive post primary education in 450 secondary schools, 250 vocational and about 100 other schools. Nearly two thirds of students attend secondary schools which are still, by and large, owned and managed by religious communities. However, with the drop off in intake into these communities, the number of priests, brothers and nuns actively involved in teaching is a mere fraction of what is was in past years. Indeed many of these schools have no religious at all on teaching staff. Vocational schools are run by the Vocational committees and cater for a quarter of the post primary students.

Secondary schools receive ninety five percent of their funding from the state with the Vocational schools receiving ninety three percent. The remaining schools, including Community and Comprehensive schools are funded individually by the state.

Secondary and Vocational schooling is free, but the cost of books, local contributions and much of extra curricular activities is met by students and their families.

In some areas there is a waiting list for entry to secondary schools, with preference being allocated to students of the associated primary school and the siblings of past pupils. A scheme of entrance exams for assessment of incoming students is employed by many schools and is chargeable.
Junior Cycle
The curriculum comprises a three year programme culminating with the Junior Certificate Examination and a two year cycle culminating with the Leaving Certificate Examination. There is an optional Transition Year between these two cycles which can be taken by children of about fifteen years of age. Not all schools offer Transition Year.

The Junior Certificate would equate somewhat with Junior High in the USA or just under the GCSE Levels in the UK. The curriculum introduces the students to languages, including French, Spanish and German; the Sciences, including Physics, Chemistry, Biology; Business Studies, Domestic Science, Art, Music, etc. Junior Cert students must take Irish, English, Maths, History and Geography along with a European language.

The requirement for Irish is waived for children entering the country at more than eleven years of age. Furthermore, unlike in the past, failure in Irish does not fail the overall exam. This also holds for the Leaving Cert.

Transition year is aimed at getting children involved in projects in the community along with sampling a wide range of academic subject areas. This serves to help students mature and to select subjects carefully and with confidence for the forthcoming Leaving Cert programme.
Senior Cycle
The Leaving Certificate
The Leaving Certificate programme has become synonymous with the Points Race. Depending on the standard attained in various subjects, a points total will be earned. This total is compared with the entry threshold of the University, Technical Colleges and other third level institutions, and places allocated accordingly. Students sit the Leaving Cert at age 17 or 18.

The curriculum of the Leaving Cert follows directly from the Junior Cert, with a small number of subjects being discarded as the student begins to specialise. Students must take five subjects and most will take seven. These must include Maths, English, Irish, and a European language. Papers can be taken at higher or lower level. An Honour can only be earned by attaining an A, B or C in the higher paper. Grades are further subdivided, for example A1, A2, A3, B1, B2, B3 etc., for the allocation of points.

The Leaving Cert standard is approximately equivalent to the UK A-level or the first year of University in the USA.

Students sitting the Leaving Cert within the Vocational Programme will have studied five Leaving Certificate subjects, including two from a set of vocational subjects, a modern European language and three mandatory Link Modules.

The Applied Leaving Certificate is a two year programme of general and vocational education and training and caters for those students who do not wish to follow the academic path. While qualification for third level education cannot be attained by this means the student can proceed to many Certificate courses.
Further Education
Vocational Education and Training

Apart from the Universities and other third level institutions, a number of educational and training courses are offered through a number of vocational institutions.
Post-Leaving Certificate Courses
Post-Leaving-Certificate courses and off-the-job training for apprentices is provided in the Regional Technical Colleges, Institutes of Technology and in F�S Training Centres.
Apprenticeship
Apprenticeship schemes operate within a number of trades. Traditionally a young person entered apprenticeship with little formal second level schooling but now most apprentices will have attained Leaving Cert level. Development is through on-the-job training and is assessed between the trade, the Trade Union, F�S and the education sector.
Climate Ireland enjoys a temperate maritime climate, due mainly to its proximity to the Atlantic Ocean and the presence of the Gulf Stream. Known as the Emerald Isle, Ireland is so green because it receives a lot of precipitation.
Typical winter weather in Ireland is clouds and rain with the occasional sunny spell. The mountains may have snow on them for many weeks in winter, but falls on the lower ground on only a few days a year, and is generally not a feature of the Irish climate. Temperatures hover around a January average of 5ºC. Overnight temperatures often drop below freezing point, and ice and frosts are common. Each winter there are a few weeks when the temperature does not rise above freezing point all day, and rivers and lakes can partially freeze over.

Typically, summers in Ireland have warm, sunny weather and a sky dotted with gentle fluffy clouds. Light rain occasionally occurs on days like these, but summer rain is usually restricted to a few wet days. In July and August, the conditions can bcome very humid and thunder storms can occur with lightning. The average July temperature is around 15ºC, although temperatures in excess of 30ºC are not unheard of.

Areas close to the coast rarely have a large difference between summer and winter conditions, and Ireland is no exception. With an average 10ºC difference between January and July, the weather is much more consistent than continental areas of the world. This consistency is due to the moderating effect of the Atlantic Ocean, which absorbs heat in summer and gives it out in winter.

Across Ireland, the local climate differs from place to place. The wettest weather always occurs in mountains and those areas to the east of the mountains - the direction of the prevailing wind. The classic examples are Kerry, Galway and Donegal. The dryest weather occurs east of areas where there are few mountains, such as the east coast. Counties Dublin and Kildare enjoy the driest weather. It must be borne in mind, however, that the difference in rainfall does not have a great effect on the type of vegetation, as it is the frequency of the rain that is more important than the total quantity.

In terms of temperature, it is again the south that enjoys the warmest weather. While the north coast is cooler than the south, the coolest areas are the inland areas which are away from the warm waters of the ocean.

The prevailing winds are from the southwest - the direction of the Gulf Stream which brings temperate conditions, in the form of Low-pressure Depressions, to what would otherwise be a much colder latitude - 20º colder, in fact. Occasionally there is a "blast from the north", bringing very cold weather from the Arctic, characterised by icy winds, snow and frost. When Ireland receives wind from the east - not particularly common - there is hot, dry weather (summer) or cold, dry weather (winter). This east wind has its origins over central Russia where there is little moisture. Personalities Oscar Wilde was born in Dublin on 16 October 1854 to Sir William Wilde and his wife Jane. Wilde was an Anglo-Irish playwright, novelist, poet, and critic. He is regarded as one of the greatest playwrights of the Victorian Era. In his lifetime he wrote nine plays, one novel, and numerous poems, short stories, and essays.

Niall James Horan was born on September 13th, 1993, in Westmeath, Mullingar (St. Luke's Hospital). He has one older brother, Greg Horan. His parents are Maura Gallagher and Bobby Horan. Niall entered the X Factor. He sang 'I'm Yours' and 'So Sick' on his audition, and got trough to the next round. At boot camp, he and Harry Styles, Liam Payne, Louis Tomlinson and Zayn Malik were put together in a band, One Direction.
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