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Unit 2 - Revolutionary War & Birth of a Nation

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Jennifer Byrd

on 12 September 2018

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Transcript of Unit 2 - Revolutionary War & Birth of a Nation

"The tree of liberty must be refreshed from time to time with the blood of patriots and tyrants."
Thomas Jefferson

Unit 2 -- The Revolutionary War and the Birth of a Nation,,,

Written by a group of 13th-century barons to protect their rights and property against a tyrannical monarch; King John agreed and affixed his seal
It was concerned with practical matters and specific grievances relevant to the feudal system under which they lived.
The interests of the common man were hardly apparent in the minds of the men who brokered the agreement.
But there are two principles expressed in Magna Carta that resonate to this day:
"No freeman shall be taken, imprisoned, disseised, outlawed, banished, or in any way destroyed, nor will We proceed against or prosecute him, except by the lawful judgment of his peers or by the law of the land."
"To no one will We sell, to no one will We deny or delay, right or justice."

The colonists believed they were entitled to the same rights as Englishmen
- rights guaranteed in the Magna Carta. They embedded those rights into the laws of their states and later into the Constitution and Bill of Rights.

The British had a long history of
demanding certain rights from their
government; the American colonists
were no different...

The Church - The Church was to be free from royal
interference, especially in the election of bishops

Taxes - No taxes except the regular feudal dues were to be levied, except by the consent of the Great Council, or Parliament

The right to due process which led to Trial by Jury

Weights and Measures - All weights and measures to be kept uniform throughout the realm

The Parliament of England passed the

Bill of Rights
on December 16, 1689.

The Bill:
Created separation of powers
Limited powers of the king and queen
Enhanced democratic election
Bolstered freedom of speech
***Limited government

The Enlightenment or the Age of Reason (1685-1815)

European politics, philosophy, science and communications were radically altered as part of a movement referred to by its participants as the Age of Reason, or simply the Enlightenment.
Questioned traditional authority and embraced the notion that humanity could be improved through rational change.
Produced numerous books, essays, inventions, scientific discoveries, laws, wars and revolutions.
The American and French Revolutions were directly inspired by Enlightenment ideals and respectively marked the peak of its influence and the beginning of its decline.

Scientific Revolution

The Enlightenment represents a move from antiquity to modern thinking… characterized by dramatic revolutions in science, philosophy, society and politics.
Science and reason replaced superstition.

Francis Bacon
Thomas Hobbes
Renee Descartes
Isaac Newton
John Locke


Most influential philosophers on American thought…

Implied agreement b/w the people and the gov’t
We agree to give up some rights to have a gov’t which provides security and protects our natural rights

Believed that people were born with certain “natural rights” that no government could morally take away
Property – unalienable rights

John Locke

the Social Contract
French philosopher
separation of powers
three branches of government, with…
checks and balances
All of these are needed to ensure liberty!

Baron de Montesquieu

The Social Contract
 "Man is born free, but he is everywhere in chains." Rousseau asserts that modern states repress the physical freedom that is our birthright, and do nothing to secure the civil freedom for the sake of which we enter into civil society.
Legitimate political authority, he suggests, comes only from a social contract agreed upon by all citizens for their mutual preservation.

While each individual has a particular will that aims for his own best interest,
the sovereign (the collective citizens) expresses the general will that aims for the common good.
No society can be free unless individuals understand that
the general will or general interest should prevail over their own individual one.

Jean Jacques Rousseau
Idea that all men are created equal and possess certain “natural rights”
Consent of the Governed
Government responsible to the people
People are entitled to a voice in government and can be replaced
Nationalism -- Intense national pride

Emergence of an American Identity

The French and Indian War resulted from ongoing frontier tensions in North America as both French and British imperial officials and colonists sought to extend each country’s sphere of influence in frontier regions.
The American phase of the global conflict, the Seven Years War

In North America, the war pitted France, French colonists, and their Native allies against Great Britain, the American colonists, and the
Iroquois Confederacy.

The French and Indian War

Treaty of Paris of 1763

The terms of the Treaty of Paris were harsh to losing France.
All French territory on the mainland of North America was lost.
The British received Quebec and the Ohio Valley.
The port of New Orleans and the Louisiana Territory west of the Mississippi were ceded to Spain for their efforts as a British ally.

The British gov’t. had tried to control American trade with the
Navigation Acts
in the 17th century, but they were not enforced regularly.

But AFTER the French and Indian War,
the British expected the colonies to pay their fair share of the national debt AND to abide by British law.

the English Parliament
The first English Parliament met in Westminster Hall in January, 1265 -- during the reign of Henry III
This was the first meeting in which the Commons were represented
The common man finally has a say in the matters of state.
The French and Indian War will set the tone for things to come because…

Many colonists did NOT feel any obligation to help Britain fight the French
British insistence that they
obligated angered colonists
British attitudes toward America and the colonists created tension

ut the EFFECTS of the French and Indian War (and how the British gov’t. handles them) will become the CAUSES of the Revolutionary War!

Go to http://www.thewarthatmadeamerica.org/timeline.html
Explore the Interactive Timeline -- Read the text and look at the pictures. As you go through the timeline, complete the French and Indian War timeline in your notes.
The French and Indian War is sometimes called
The Great War for Empire

Is this an accurate name? Why or why not?
Tweet me! (And give me some CLEVER
So the French lose to Britain --
Au revoir, French Fries!!!
No single event caused the Revolutionary War. The growing tensions b/w Britain and the colonists are the long-term causes…

Salutary neglect
and a growing sense of independence

New taxes and economic restrictions designed to make the colonists contribute to their own protection by Britain and comply with Britain’s mercantilist policies

New political restrictions on colonial self-government and on their rights as English citizens

Vocabulary Alert!!

Salutary neglect
The unofficial British policy of lax enforcement of laws regarding the American colonies during the 1600s and 1700s.

Secret organization

Formed to protest the Stamp Act and continued to undermine British authority.

They used intimidation and violence to “influence” British officials and to enforce colonial boycotts of British goods

Boston Tea Party

Several factors influenced colonial attitudes about their treatment by the British…


Formed throughout the colonies as a means of coordinating action against Great Britain. 

Samuel Adams
– “Penman of the Revolution”

The goal was to inform voters of the common threat they faced from Britain.

Several factors influenced colonial attitudes about their treatment by the British…


Sued for libel for criticizing the governor of NY
Won because he had printed the truth
Set the precedent for freedom of the press in America

Several factors influenced colonial attitudes about their treatment by the British…


• On April 18, 1775, British General Thomas Gage sent 700 soldiers to destroy guns and ammunition the colonists had stored in the town of
just outside of Boston.
• They also planned to arrest Samuel Adams and John Hancock, two of the key leaders of the patriot movement. But -- Lexington had been warned...
• April 19th, the militia at

the Minute Men
– assembled on the town green. The 77 militiamen were ordered to disperse. Shots were fired (no one knows by whom!), and 8 Americans lay dead when it was over. The British marched on to Concord.

With the “shot heard ‘round the world”, the Revolutionary War has begun!

The presence of British troops continued to grow after the French and Indian War – especially in Boston. After the Intolerable Acts, colonists began to arm themselves, stockpile weapons, and form militias. Most colonists were NOT ready to declare independence, but wanted to be prepared…just in case!!

British troops left Lexington and headed on to Boston to capture the arsenal, but they had been warned by
Paul Revere, William Dawes
Dr. Samuel Prescott.
The Concord militia was ready and waiting at the North Bridge, and the British soldiers were forced to retreat.

Group activity:
With your partners, research the
causes and effects of the
events in your Revolutionary War Causes
Chart in your notes.
1. Britain’s national debt doubles Britain begins seriously taxing the colonists
2. Britain’s territory in America more than doubles British presence in America increases
3. Native American attacks on the frontier increase British control over colonists increases

Why declare independence???

Common Sense
by Thomas Paine. Convinced many colonists that there was no reason for Britain to continue to control America.

2. Rejection of the
Olive Branch Petition
. This final attempt at reconciliation asked George III to consider addressing colonial grievances so we could stay part of the British Empire. He refused…
Hiring of the Hessians
. George III hired 30,000 of these German mercenaries to fight alongside of the British regulars. Americans were furious.

2nd Continental Congress
May 1775 – Delegates from all 13 colonies met in Philadelphia to deal with the rebellion.

John Hancock
- president of the Congress
George Washington
- chosen to command the Army
Richard Henry Lee
of Virginia formally proposed independence – “That these United Colonies, are and of right, ought to be, free and independent states…” – Approved July 2, 1776
Thomas Jefferson
drafts the
Declaration of Independence
. Adopted July 4, 1776.

Also attended: John Adams, Sam Adams, Ben Franklin , Roger Sherman, John Dickinson

Lee Resolution

The Declaration of Independence is made up of five distinct parts:
Introduction; the preamble; the body, which can be divided into two sections; and a conclusion.

Intro states that this document will "declare" the "causes" that have made it necessary for the American colonies to leave the British Empire.
Preamble sets out principles that were already recognized to be "self-evident“…natural rights (“…life, liberty and the pursuit of happiness…” )
1st section of the body gives evidence of the "long train of abuses and usurpations" heaped upon the colonists by King George III.
2nd section of the body states that the colonists had appealed in vain to their "British brethren" for a redress of their grievances.
Conclusion: that "these United Colonies are, and of Right ought to be Free and Independent States; that they are Absolved from all Allegiance to the British Crown, and that all political connection between them and the State of Great Britain, is and ought to be totally dissolved."

We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights, that among these are Life, Liberty, and the pursuit of Happiness. That to secure these rights, Governments are instituted among Men, deriving their just powers from the consent of the governed. That whenever any Form of Government becomes destructive of these ends, it is the Right of the People to alter or to abolish it, and to institute new Government, laying its foundation on such principles and organizing its powers in such form, as to them shall seem most likely to effect their Safety and Happiness. . .

Choosing Sides

The Continental Army evolved from the militia organization familiar to the colonists.
Four days after the battles of Lexington and Concord the Massachusetts Provincial Congress voted to raise an army of 30,000 men and requested the other New England colonies to join in this effort.

The New England colonies then began the process of forming from their various militias a volunteer army enlisted for the rest of the year. Congress thereby created the Continental Army.

British Strengths
Military - Strong well trained army and navy
Strong Central Government
Plenty of funds to finance the war
Colonists who supported the British
Native Americans - Supported the British during the war

American Strengths
Home turf - familiar with their home ground; shorter supply lines
Strong military leaders
George Washington and other strong military leaders
Anger (Moral cause) - Angered over the actions of the King, they were inspired to fight
Guerrilla (not GORILLA!!) tactics
Sneak attacks


**Get out Revolutionary Battles Chart…

William Howe
Henry Clinton
Charles Cornwallis
John Burgoyne
Thomas Gage
Henry Clinton
Richard Howe
Banastre Tarleton
*Benedict Arnold

George Washington
Nathaniel Greene
Daniel Morgan
Light Horse Harry Lee
Henry Knox
Benedict Arnold
Ethan Allen
George Rogers Clark
Horatio Gates
John Paul Jones

British Weaknesses
Distance from home - Large distance separating Britain from the battlefields in North America; long supply lines
Unfamiliar terrain
Troops were not familiar with the land of North America;
Weak military leaders; lacked respect for Americans
17th century tactics
Continued to use linear formations

American Weaknesses
Untrained soldiers
No colonial military - Untrained and undisciplined
Shortages - Food and ammunition
Navy was inferior to the British Royal Navy
No central government
All the states operated as individuals. No “united” states – Had to start from scratch


Military Leaders
Get out your Interactive Standards:
Parent-Child Analogies -- pp. 5 & 6
As we go through the next Prezi, work with a partner to answer the questions on your chart (only in the
middle column
...we will come back to the others later!)


Conflict b/w Britain and
France over control of the Ohio Valley!

Articles of Confederation
The first written constitution of the United States. Stemming from wartime urgency, its progress was slowed by fears of central authority and extensive land claims by states before was it was ratified on March 1, 1781. Under these articles:
Article III described the confederation as “a firm league of friendship” of states “for their common defence, the security of their liberties, and their mutual and general welfare.”
This league would have a unicameral congress as the central institution of government
Each state had one vote, and delegates were elected by state legislatures. States remained sovereign and independent, with Congress serving as the last resort on appeal of disputes.
Congress was also given the authority to make treaties and alliances, maintain armed forces and coin money.

Articles of Confederation
However, the central government lacked the ability to:
levy taxes
regulate commerce
Government surveyors were to divide the territory into individual townships.
Each township = 6 square miles in length and width = 36 sq. mi.
Divided into one-square mile sections, with each section encompassing 640 acres.
Section 16 was set aside for a public school.
The federal government reserved sections eight, eleven, twenty-six, and twenty-nine to provide veterans of the American Revolution with land bounties for their service during the war.
Remaining sections to be sold at public auction. The minimum bid was 640 dollars per section or one dollar for each acre of land in each section.

Set forth how the government of the United States would measure, divide and distribute the land it had acquired from Great Britain north and west of the Ohio River at the end of the American Revolution.

Important Acts under the Articles

Land Ordinance of 1785

Determined how the NW territory would be governed and set rules for statehood
Would create 3-5 territories
Each territory would have an appointed governor and council.
When the population = 5,000, residents could elect their own assembly, although the governor would retain absolute veto power
When population = 60,000 free settlers, they could draft a constitution and petition for full statehood.
Granted civil liberties and public education within the new territories, but
did not allow slavery. 

Northwest Ordinance of 1787

Meeting at the suggestion of
James Madison
in Annapolis, Maryland beginning on September 11, 1786
Held to discuss some issues of interstate trade.
Only 12 delegates total representing just five states (New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Delaware, and Virginia).
Alexander Hamilton
introduced the following resolution, calling for the convening of a special convention to

the weak Articles of Confederation for a number of serious defects.
Led to the meeting in July 1787.
Now known as the Constitutional Convention, that body decided to create an entirely new form of government around a new constitution, drafting the U.S. Constitution toward that end, rather than amend the Articles of Confederation.

Annapolis Convention
Shay's Rebellion
1786-87 -- Led by Daniel Shays
Series of revolts by farmers in danger of losing their farms over taxes; especially in Mass.
Put down by state militias
Led some to believe we needed a stronger central government

All states, except Rhode Island. sent delegates
Thomas Jefferson characterized the 55 men who showed up in Philadelphia as “demi-gods”
George Washington
was elected president of the convention
Delegates decided to keep the debate secret AND decided to scrap the Articles altogether and start over.
Constitutional Convention -- 1787

Led by Thomas Jefferson, George Mason, Patrick Henry, Mercy Otis Warren, James Warren
Against the Constitution
Weak central gov’t/state sovereignty
Farmers/artisans/skilled workers
Fear of abuse = Bill of Rights needed

Anti-national bank
Strict construction or interpretation

Led by Alexander Hamilton, James Madison, & John Jay
For the Constitution
Strong central gov’t
Generally wealthy/educated/professionals
Checks and balances prevent abuse of power
Pro- National Bank
Loose construction or interpretation

To convince New York voters to ratify the Constitution, Madison (28), Hamilton (52) and Jay (5) wrote a series of 85 essays known The Federalist Papers, or collectively as The Federalist.
Were published in 3 NY newspapers, under the pen name Publius.
Addressed the objections of opponents, who feared a tyrannical central government that would supersede states’ rights and encroach on individual liberties. 
May have had relatively little impact on New York ratifying the Constitution, but they remain the definitive work on understanding the Constitution

Anti-Federalists responded with a series of articles as well under numerous authors (“Cato”, “Brutus”, “Centinel”…)

The Federalist Papers

The Federalist Papers
Popular Sovereignty
Limited Government
Separation of Powers
Checks and Balances
Judicial Review

6 Basic Principles in the US Constitution

The people are sovereign.
In other words, the people give power to the government

Popular Sovereignty

The government only has as much power as the people give it

Limited Government

Each branch “checks” and “balances” the others.
Each branch has the ability to restrain the other branches
Prevents one branch from becoming too powerful

Checks and Balances
Marbury v. Madison
Established the Supreme Court’s power of judicial review
The federal courts have the right to declare certain acts or laws unconstitutional
Example of Checks and Balances
Judicial Review

Power is divided between a central government and smaller governments
Power shared between the federal, state, and local governments
US body of laws
Begins with the Preamble – first sentence of the constitution
States the purpose and intent of the document

The US Constitution
We the People of the United States, in Order to form a more perfect Union, establish Justice, insure domestic Tranquility, provide for the common defense, promote the general Welfare, and secure the Blessings of Liberty to ourselves and our Posterity, do ordain and establish this Constitution for the United States of America.

Article I
Legislative Branch
Role: Make Laws
Article II
Executive Branch
Role: Enforce Laws
Article III
Judicial Branch
Role: Interpret Laws
Judicial Review

Three Branches of Government

Supremacy Clause - Art. VI
Constitution is the supreme law of the land
Full Faith and Credit Clause --Art. IV
States must respect the laws of other states
Establishment Clause - 1st Amendment
Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion

Key Clauses of the Constitution
1st 10 Amendments to the Constitution added to protect the rights of United States citizens and the states
Anti-Federalists insisted they be included
Written by James Madison
Amendments 11-27 added to the Constitution between 1795 and 1992 to protect the rights of citizens in the United States

The Bill of Rights

Freedom of:

First Amendment

RAPPS – It’s a rap!
Religion, Assembly, Press, Petition, Speech

1st Amendment – How Can I Remember It?

The right to keep and bear arms

Second Amendment
How many bare arms do you see?
2 bare arms – 2nd Amendment

2nd Amendment – How Can I Remember It?

No soldier shall be quartered without owner consent during peacetime or war times.

Third Amendment
3 Little Pigs – 3rd Amendment
Little pig, little pig, let me in! Not by the hair of my chinny chin chin!
Go ahead and huff and puff! You don’t have to let anyone in!

3rd Amendment – How Can I Remember It?
Right to privacy. No search without probable cause or a warrant

Fourth Amendment
Jay-Z has 4 letters

4th Amendment – How Can I Remember It?

Clearly defines criminal proceedings by which a person may be arrested and charged with a crime.

Fifth Amendment

Grand Jury
Must be indicted by a grand jury for crimes that carry the sentence of the death penalty or life imprisonment

5th Amendment

Double jeopardy
You cannot be tried for the same crime twice

5th Amendment

Eminent domain
Government’s power to take private property for public use

5th Amendment

Self Incrimination
“I plead the 5th”
You do not have to incriminate yourself

5th Amendment


Grand Jury – Good Job

Double Jeopardy – 2 fingers – can’t be tried twice

Eminent Domain – Don’t take my property – Finger????

Due Process – “I do” – ring finger

Self Incrimination – “I plead the fifth” – 5 fingers

5th Amendment – How Can I Remember It?

Speedy trial and a trial by jury (public trial)
Right to counsel (attorney)
Call witnesses on your own behalf
Be informed of the charges against you (writ of habeas corpus)
Sixth Amendment
Jury trial in civil cases
Sue for damages in civil court
What are civil cases?

Seventh Amendment
Excessive bail shall not be required, nor excessive fines imposed, nor cruel and unusual punishment inflicted.

Eighth Amendment

8 resembles a paddle
8 resembles handcuffs

No cruel and unusual punishment

8th Amendment – How Can I Remember It?

The rights specifically mentioned in the Bill of Rights are not necessarily the only rights enjoyed by the people.

Ninth Amendment

Cover your butt amendment
Amendment to cover anything that was missed
9 rhymes with mine
Amendment nine is mine

9th Amendment – How Can I Remember It?

Powers not delegated to the U.S. by the Constitution, nor prohibited by it to the States, are reserved for the States

State’s rights!

Tenth Amendment

Amendment 10- North Carolina wins!
State’s rights

10th Amendment – How Can I Remember It?

On the next episode of How to Build a New Nation….

We will elect a president, establish a Supreme Court and the Cabinet and SOOOOO many cool things!!!!


Land Ordinance of 1785
National =
Delegated powers
Shared =
Concurrent powers
State =
Reserved powers
Sharing of power between state and federal governments
The Magna Carta -- 1215
Salutary neglect:

The unofficial policy of the British gov't to practice lenient or lax enforcement of parliamentary laws regarding the American colonies during the 17th and 18th
centuries. (Gave the colonists a
false sense of autonomy!)
Pontiac's Rebellion
After the French and Indian War, Native Americans in the Ohio Valley would now have to deal with British forts and American settlers...they were NOT happy about it! (French were much friendlier and more fair. The British were rather snotty to the NA's.)
Ottowa chief
convinced several tribes to reject cooperation with the British or the colonists, including the Delaware, Seneca, Chippewa, Miami, Potawotomi and Huron, among others.
May 1763 -- Pontiac and his allies attacked
Fort Detroit
, laying siege for about 5 months. Unable to compete against the British army, Pontiac's confederation crumbles.
Pontiac's Rebellion is significant because it directly led to the
Proclamation of 1763

Writs of Assistance

Documents which served as search warrants; allowed customs officials to search and ransack ships, warehouses and homes to look for smuggled goods...

Did NOT require proof of probable cause!!!! Sound familiar??
Why does Jefferson believe this??
Get out your Philosophers Chart....
In your group, research and discuss your assigned philosopher and complete the chart.
Now!! Go back to your Interactive Standards Parent-Child Analogies. With your partner, try to figure out the Event and answer the questions in the right hand column. We will compare answers as a class!
These new political philosophies help create a distinct American identity and soon form the basis of the Revolutionary movement... America will soon be guided by the notion of
The French and Indian War
General Charles Cornwallis
surrendered at
Aid from the French was crucial:
Marquis de Lafayette
Admiral DeGrasse
General Rochambeau
The war officially ended with the
Treaty of Paris of 1783
Great Britain acknowledged the US as a free nation
Americans were to honor pre-war debts
Americans were NOT to persecute Loyalists
The American delegation basically abandoned the French and negotiated with Britain on the down-low!
Benjamin Franklin, John Jay,
Henry Laurens, and John Adams.
Separation of Powers
Each branch has specific powers; prevents abuse
Necessary & Proper Clause
Article I, Sect. 8
Congress may make all laws "necessary and proper" to carry out other powers
This is an exercise of "
implied powers
" -- powers not written but are assumed
Article IV -- The States - relationship
b/w states and federal govt

Article V -- Amendment - the process

Article VI -- Debts, Supremacy, Oaths

Article VII -- Ratification
The Amendment Process
All of these infuenced the American colonists' ideas about self-government. But the emerging American identity was probably most greatly influenced by....
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