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Copy of Birth of a Filipino National Consciousness.
Transcript of Copy of Birth of a Filipino National Consciousness.
- It usually springs from the consciousness of a national identity of being one people. It is that all pervading spirit that binds together men of diverse castes and creeds, clans and colors and unites them with one people, family , one nation with common aspirations and ideals.
Foundations of Our Indeginous Culture
Archeologists and historians who have been reconstructing our past to ascertain our racial origin hypothesized that:
1. Our indigenous culture started to develop in the pre- historic and pre-Christian eras.
2. These early cultures ranged from the Old Stone Age to the Metal Age with organized community life.
3.The early settlers came from Borneo, Indo-China, South China and other parts of Southeast Asia.
Malays- brought here their technology that started the development of our indigenous culture. These skills were mining and smelting of iron tools, weapons , utensils and ornaments; irrigated agriculture; cultivation of fruit trees, spices, fiber, ornamental plants and other agricultural products; the use of the carabao and the horse as work animals; the manufacture of ornamented pottery and glass beads and weaving.
between these periods of migration, towards the end of the 19th century , our country began to experience contacts with Arab, Chinese and Malay traders. The fusion of these successive culture migrations and mingling of their Asian blood have assimilated so well to produce the Filipino people and our indigenous culture. From then on until the Spaniards came, the settlers in their respective traditions had established an agricultural economy; maintained trade relations with each other; and developed religious and social norms, a language, a system of writing, literature, and a political and judicial system in accordance with the standards of the period.
the chinese and arabs who took part of history
Unification of the Country by Spain
more than 300 centuries of spanish domination in the philippines was one of the longest in southeast asia by a western colonizer. Her most worthy legacy was the functional unification of the widely-scattered people under a highly centralized and bureaucratic government.
Roman Catholicism- the better known Spanish legacy among present day Filipinos, was the state of religion through catholicism and a system of education.
Happenings during the Spanish Era:
2. Spanish Abuses
3. Philippine Revolts
The process of acculturation and the government's notorious monopolistic restrictions and control dominated the people's lives. Most of the Spanish officials became abusive that gave rise to revolts.
Diego Silang (1762-1763)
Apolinario Dela Cruz (1840-1841)
and several others..
All these revolts failed because of sectional jealousies, the lack of communication in the provinces and the absence of a national leadership.The insular nature of the country hindered contacts among the filipinos.
Challenge of the 19th Century
Industrialization rapidly changed rapidly gained momentum in the second half of the 19th century . The wonders of science and man's new knowledge of chemistry and physics and other ideas greatly enhanced the industrial revolution.
Here are few of the things in the 19th Century:
One of the 19th century philosophers who brilliantly expounded the philosophy of socialism of now known as Marxism which has now known as the most influential concept among labor circles. With the publication of the "Communist Manifesto" in 1848, socialism passed permanently into the tradition of western civilization
The Altered position of the Catholic Church in the 19th Century
The catholic church in Europe was a most powerful influential institution. The church has been identified with the monarchy and aristocracy since the medieval era.The church therefore was considered an adversary of the young Republican states and the recently unified countries. The french viewed the church as a threat to their newly established republican state, and Bismark of Germany considered the church as a threat to the new unified German Empire.
Causes of the diminishing power of the church:
2. Liberation of People
3. Formation of different Religions
4. Religious Reformations.
The new breed of Native Middle Class
The 19th century economic and social stimuli effected a marked improvement in the standard of living of a small group of indios and mestizos who were engaged in commercial agriculture and trade. This group became the nucleus of growing class.
Initial response to 19th century challenges.
Francisco Baltazar- voiced his disgust in the prevailing social order through his literary pieces, particularly "Florante at Laura".
Father Pelaez- used the pulpit and the press to expose and criticize the rampant racial discrimination against the native clergy.
Father Burgos- openly and eagerly worked for clerical equality and for the secularization of parishes.
Futile Spanish Attempts to Initiate Reforms
Sensing the prevalent social discontent, political insecurity and the growing anti-Spanish feelings in the islands, the Spanish governors: General Manuel Pavia and and Carlos Ma de la Torre warned the spanish government and suggested certain reforms. Governor Rafael de Izquierdo, on the other hand blamed higher educationas the motivating factor of all these agitations.
Fortunately for the Philippines, the spanish government could not agree on policies to counteract the surging rise of nationalistic sentiments. The political instability in Spain had caused frequent changes of spanish officials in the Philippines which caused further confusion and increased social as well as political discontent in the country.
Filipino Sentiment of Nationality Aroused
This local incident was magnified by the Spanish authorities into a "national rebellion" to justify mass reprisals. When the news of the Cavite mutiny reached Manila, the arrest of liberal intellectuals was immediately ordered. Among those arrested were mestizos and natives who were most vocal in suggesting reforms during De la Torre's regime. They were Fathers Gomez, burgos, Zamora, Austin Mendoza, Mariano Lopez and Feliciano Lopez.
The vindictive fiasco made no distinction of social classes or status - mestizos, indios, priests, lawyers, and workers - were all imprisoned, humiliated, and sentenced as a group. These social groups finally realized that to save their lives and fortune, they have to seek one common objective; they had to unite, or there would be no end to their miseries.
Activities seemed to settle down as the reformists carried on with more discretion, setting up headquarters wherever freer conditions permitted. Eventually a peaceful but vigorous campaign called the Propaganda Movement was launched.
The Propaganda Movement
After eight years of relative peace and quiet, the historical drama now unfolds in Madrid where intellectual and political ferment have been long in progress. Two young Doctors of Laws, Pedro Paterno and Gregorio Sancianco, both chinese mestizos endowed with nationalist sentiments were in Spain during the "lull" years following the tragedies of 1872.Their Literary works seemed to have anticipated the dream of their compatriots and set the pattern of action and themes for the other nationalists to follow. These two intellectuals were soon joined by Graciano Lopez Jaena, Jose Rizal , Pedro de Govantes and Eduardo de Lete.
Dr. Paterno Published his first literary work which was a collection of verses entitled Sampaguitas (1880). He attempted to project to the public a Filipino national personality through the works of a Filipino.
Dr. Gregorio Sanciano wrote on a more serious theme: economic reforms to improve political administration. His book, " El Progreso de Filipinas ( 1881), analyzed the revenue system and concluded the equality of the Philippine tax structure had deterred the economic growth of the Philippines.
The works of Paterno and Sancianco clearly summed up the ideas that were to recur in the political and intellectual activities of the propagandists for the next 15 years. The propagandists asserted an image of dignity and identity as members of the Spanish nation by working for their right to administrative and economic reforms in order to correct existing prejudices and anomalies
Unifying Forces During the Unorganized Years
Spontaneous expressions of nationalistic sentiments with no formal organization to coordinate and direct their activities characterize the early stages of the propaganda movement in Spain. Although they worked individually writing articles for liberal and radical Spanish newspapers, they acted as one on certain occasions. These were the things that happened in their unified forces:
- abolition of the tobacco monopoly in 1881
- the victory of Juan Luna and Felix Resureccion Hidalgo at the "Exposicion Filipina in 1887"
- forming of an organization called " Circulo Hispano-Filipino led by Juana Atayde, a spaniard born in the Philippines.
- A propaganda newspaper, " España en Filipinas" advocated economic and administrative reforms for the Philippines.
-Rizal's Noli me Tangere was published in March 1887 which added fuel to heated arguments between the pro and anti propagandists. Rizal expaected unfavorable reactions from the friar group.Its publication spurred the Filipinos to close their ranks and defend the novel from criticism, using it for propaganda purposes.
Revival of Activities in the Philippines
As the drive for reforms in Spain gained his momentum, the nationalist-reformists in the Philippines were busy with their own plans. The local strategy in organizing the propaganda work was performed by Marcelo H. Del Pilar exhorted the young men to join student organizations. He stumped the provinces and moralized among the people about patriotism, sacrifice, and industry.
His works were:
- his duplos and essays which satirized local conditions were sidely circulated in the Tagalog Provinces.
-secretly organized the Comite de Propaganda shich used Manila and Malolos as centers of their operations.
Encouraged by their growing consciousness of unity, the consummate leadership of Del Pilar, and the support of liberal-minded officials, the natives further questioned the right of the parish priests to decide whose names were to be deleted from the list of taxpayers . They also exposed instances where friars abused their authority , such as the deportation of those who complained against the friars of various crimes and demanded the expulsion of the friars and the exile of the Archbishop.
Glimpses of Propaganda Literature
The biographies of great Filipinos such as Rizal and their novels were serialized in La Solidaridad to show enhancement of the liberal's motives for reforms.
Included historical essays stressed the importance of education, analyzed the grievances of country-men and belied unfair charges against the people, this ideas of Mariano ponce.
Thus, the writer-reformists through their profilic writings make their demands for reform clear, and build the Filipino image of hope, pride and dignity.
Masonry and the Propaganda Movement
Not satisfied with their research, journalistic, literary and oratorical feats, the propagandists joined the brotherhood of masons. The liberal ideas of the masons, their fearless attacks on the government and the church, and the freedom they generally enjoyed attracted the attention of the propagandists.
They hoped that this association would help them fight the friars and obtain reforms.
Counter - Propaganda Moves
The expose, satives and criticisms written against
the Spaniards stimulated varied reactions, among which was sympathy for the spanish authorities in the Philippines. This group of sympathizers also organized their counter propaganda moves similar to those of the filipino propagandists.
They published and wrote for newspapers, adopted of the "PSEUDONYMS", and banned all the writings of the propagandists from the Philippines.
These were not the principal reforms the Filipino wanted. The maura law was a fine piece of municipal legislation but it came three years before the outbreak of the revolution and was too late for implementation without a guarantee of their human and civil rights, the Penal Code, Civil Code and the code of commerce were useless to the Filipinos.
Problems of the Propagandists
The widening rift among the propagandist was aggravated by their personal problems, their depleted financial conditions, their homesickness and concern for their families in the Philippines, and their rivalries and criticism of one another because no substantial reforms were granted.
Rizal attempts to carry on the Propaganda in the Philippines
Of these three stalwarts of the propaganda, Rizal came home with the hope of working for reforms on Philippine soil. He organized La Liga Filipina on 3 July 1892:
Objectives according to its constitution :
Unificatio of the whole archipelago into one compact, vigorous, and homogenous body;
Mutual protection in every want and necessity;
Defense against all violence and injustice;
Encouragement of education, agriculture and commerce and;
Study and application of reforms.
However noble Rizal's intentions were, La Liga was shortlived because of his exile to dapitan in 1892. Rizal's last desperateattempt to carry on the propaganda movement in the Philippines had failed.
Alvaro, Clinton Y.
Gacang, Abrehn A.
Agbon, Janmark M.
Dela Cruz, Joshua Paolo
MWF (9:00-10:00 A.M.)
Social Science 4:
Life and Works of Rizal
Prof. Gregg Jones Galgo
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