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Supervision as Professional Development and Renewal
Transcript of Supervision as Professional Development and Renewal
Effective Professional Development
Principles and Practices of Supervision
Supervision as Professional Development and Renewal *
We need to reach teachers' full potential for growth and this cannot be done solely through in-service training. We will take a deep look at professional development and renewal as the primary source of teacher learning as well as methods of designing effective learning opportunities for teachers.
*Unless otherwise noted, information in the presentation has been obtained from Sergiovanni and Starratt,
2007, pp. 214-229.
Learning Isn't Just For Students!
Effective professional development and renewal encourages the life-long learning that leads to success. We must be teaching to learn and learning to teach at the same time!
techniques involve lecture, demonstration, and guided discussion
structured process in which trainers talk and teachers listen
does not provide for true growth
best for when problems involve a knowledge deficit that can be corrected through specific training
involves teachers in problem solving
focus is on inquiry rather than training
supervisors can help by providing opportunity and support as well as a collaborative and collegial role
focuses on personal and professional growth through self-reflection and evaluation
teacher engages in these practices on his or her own
knowledge is a personal, connective trait within the teacher
Professional Development Should:
offer meaningful intellectual, social, and emotional engagement with ideas, materials, and colleagues
take others' experience into account
consider the larger context of practice
provide teachers methods in which they can employ these techniques with students in the greater context of continual learning (Little, 1993, pp. 129-159)
Professional Learning Communities
encourage teachers to engage in reflective practices
acknowledge that teachers have differentiated needs, talents, and interests
promote collaboration and dialogue
They contribute data, information, and solve problems.
Supervisors act as colleagues.
Teachers' capacities, needs, and interests are of the utmost importance
Professional Learning Communities
encourage reflection and collaborative dialogue
recognize teachers' individual needs, talents, and interests
emphasize both horizontal and vertical interdependencies
Survival of the Fittest
In a professional school community, "learning and teaching depend heavily upon creating, sustaining, and expanding a community of research practice. Members of the community are critically dependent on each other...collaborative learning is not just nice but necessary for survival" (Brown, 1994).
TURN AND TALK
With so little time in the instructional day, where will you squeeze in time for the collaboration necessary for PLCs?
- I know it.
- I understand it.
- I can do it.
- I will do it.
A comprehensive staff development program takes into account the factors of good teaching (Rubin, 1975):
teacher's sense of purpose and sensitivity to students (which creates their educational platform, necessary for decision-making)
teachers' familiarity with subject matter (content)
range of teachers' techniques (process)
Teachers are expected to
to do their jobs.
It is expected that teachers
their jobs even when they are not being directly observed.
High-stakes testing is creating external pressure on teachers to promise that they
Approach and Responsibility
Traditional approaches (in-service) gives responsibility to the supervisor and are best when lack of knowledge is the problem.
Informal approaches (exploration and discovery) give responsibility to the teacher
Shared staff development is ideal.
Shared Staff Development
Teachers are actively involved in problem solving and analysis as well as sharing data, information, and feelings.
Supervisors are colleagues and share these activities with teachers.
Problems studied occur in real-life contexts.
Feedback is provided by teachers, supervisors, and joint analysis.
Emphasis is on DIRECT IMPROVEMENT of teaching and learning in the classroom.
Texas Hold 'Em!
As noted previously, Rubin identified four factors critical for good teaching:
(1) teacher's sense of purpose
(2) teacher's perception of students
(3) teacher's content knowledge
(4) teacher's mastery of techniques
In your mixed groups of teachers and principals, please rank these four factors in order of importance...NO PEEKING NOW! Once all members are done compare your sheets to spark a discussion. What is truly the most important factor contributing to student success?
Brown, A.L. (1994). The advancement of
. Educational Researcher (23)8. p. 10
Little, J. W. (1993). Teacher's Professional
Development in a climate of educational reform.
Educational Evaluations and Policy Analysis (15)
2. pp. 129-159.
Rubin, L. J. (1975). The case for staff
development. in Sergiovanni, T.J. (1975). Professional supervision for professional teachers. Washington, D.C.: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.
ergiovanni, T.J. & Starratt, R.J. (2007).
Supervision: A redefinition (8th ed.)
New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.