Loading presentation...

Present Remotely

Send the link below via email or IM

Copy

Present to your audience

Start remote presentation

  • Invited audience members will follow you as you navigate and present
  • People invited to a presentation do not need a Prezi account
  • This link expires 10 minutes after you close the presentation
  • A maximum of 30 users can follow your presentation
  • Learn more about this feature in our knowledge base article

Do you really want to delete this prezi?

Neither you, nor the coeditors you shared it with will be able to recover it again.

DeleteCancel

Make your likes visible on Facebook?

Connect your Facebook account to Prezi and let your likes appear on your timeline.
You can change this under Settings & Account at any time.

No, thanks

Organic Chemistry: ALCOHOLS

No description
by

Vicky Lai

on 13 December 2012

Comments (0)

Please log in to add your comment.

Report abuse

Transcript of Organic Chemistry: ALCOHOLS

ORGANIC CHEMISTRY: WHAT IS IT? ALKENES NAMING ALCOHOLS ALCOHOLS ALCOHOLS H C C C H H H H H OH H Markovnikov's Rule ALKYL HALIDES TO ALCOHOLS SECONDARY ALCOHOL secondary alcohol (2 ): a carbon atom that is attached to TWO alkyl groups and a hydroxyl group PRIMARY ALCOHOL TO ALDEHYDE R OH hydroxyl functional group (-OH) hydrocarbons C H (R) generated from removing an H atom from a water molecule x y one or more hydrogen atoms are removed from the hydrocarbon and replaced with OH group ALDEHYDES KETONES ETHERS C H n 2n (hydration) (oxidization) (oxidization) (dehydration) R-C-H O = R-C-R' O = R-O-R' parent chain and ends with "-ol" main chain must include OH group indicate position of side chains and OH group Multiple hydroxyl groups = polyhydric -C-C-C- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - OH -C-C-C-OH - - - - - - -C-C-C- - - - - - - OH OH (di, tri, tetra, etc.) PREPARATION OF ALCOHOLS alkenes: only contains carbons and hydrogens alkene reacts with a water molecule to make an alcohol a concentrated acid used as a catalyst (ex.H SO ) 4 2 -C-C-C=C + HOH - - - - - - - acid -C-C-C-C- - - - - - - - - OH H ALKYL HALIDES RX (hydration) When halogen halide or water is added to an alkene or alkyne, the H atom bonds with the carbon atom (between the double bond) that initially had more hydrogen atoms -C-C=C- - - - - + HOH acid -C-C-C- - - - - - - OH H PHYSICAL PROPERTIES -OH group attached to the chain makes alcohol more polar PRIMARY ALCOHOL primary alcohol (1 ): a carbon atom that is attached to only ONE alkyl group and a hydroxyl group o -C-C-OH - - - - alkene alkyl halide primary alcohol -C=C- - - + HCl -C-C- - - - - H Cl + HOH -C-C- - - - - H OH + HCl hydrogen halide controlled oxidization with oxidizing agents (ex. KMnO , Cr O ) to supply oxygen atom 4 2 7 2- contains a carbonyl group (CO) attached to an H atom and an alkyl group R-C-H = O -C-C-C-OH - - - - - - + (O) -C-C-C=O + - - - - - HOH an alkene reacted with a halogen halide
an alkane reacted with a halogen halide -C-C-C-C-C- HYDRATION REACTION HYDRATION REACTION - - - - - - - - - - F + HOH -C-C-C-C-C- - - - - - - - - - - OH + HF hydrogen bonds can be formed higher boiling point much more soluble in polar solvents (ex. water) hydrogen bond R-C-OH - - general form: general form: R-C-R' - OH - -C-C-C-C- - - - - - - - - OH ex. ex. forms into a ketone (carbonyl group is formed) o SECONDARY ALCOHOL TO KETONE controlled oxidization with oxidizing agents to supply oxygen atom contains a carbonyl group (CO) with two alkyl groups attached R-C-R' = O -C-C-C-C-C- - - - - - - - - - - OH + (O) -C-C-C-C-C- - - - - - - - - + HOH = O TERTIARY ALCOHOL tertiary alcohol (3 ): a carbon atom attached to a hydroxyl group and three other alkyl groups o general form: R-C-R' - - R" OH -C-C-C-C- ex. - - - - - - - - -C- - - -C- OH Do not oxidize due to no available H atoms to be removed ALCOHOL TO ETHERS formed when two alcohol molecules react a molecule of water is eliminated concentrated sulphuric acid used as catalyst R-O-R' -C-C-C-C-OH + - - - - - - - - HO-C-C-C- - - - - - - acid -C-C-C-C-O-C-C-C- + HOH - - - - - - - - - - - - - - DEHYDRATION/CONDENSATION REACTION DEHYDRATION OF ALCOHOLS removal of water
catalyzed by concentrated sulphuric acid produces an alkene -C-C-C-C- - - - - - - - - OH acid -C-C-C=C- + HOH - - - - - - ALDEYHDE AND KETONE TO ALCOHOL addition reaction with hydrogen (H ) 2 catalyst, high temperatures, and high pressures are needed ALDEHYDE -C-C- - - = O + H-H catalyst heat, pressure -C-C- - - - - H OH KETONE -C-C-C- - - - - = O H-H + heat, pressure catalyst -C-C-C- - - - - - - OH H HYDROGENATION REACTION WORKS CITED general formula: C H OH n 2n + 1
Full transcript