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Genes and Gene Technology

This presentation covers the structure and function of DNA
by

Robert Williford

on 13 January 2015

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Transcript of Genes and Gene Technology

How is it put together?
The different bases match up with each other to form the rungs of the "ladder". The phosphates and sugars form the sides of the "ladder".

Adenine
always pairs with
Thymine
.
Guanine
always pairs with
Cytosine
.
What is DNA
DNA
is short for deoxyribonucleic acid. This, along with proteins, are what chromosomes are made of.

Nucleotides
- DNA is made of four different subunits called nucleotides. They function like puzzle pieces to fit together. Every nucleotide is made of three ingredients: sugar, phosphate, and a base.

The four different bases that make each nucleotide different are:
adenine, thymine, guanine, and cytosine
.
In this Chapter we will discuss what DNA is made of, what it looks like, how it's put together, how it copies itself, the relationship between DNA and genes, the proteins involved, mutations, and genetic engineering.
DNA can copy itself!
A DNA molecule replicates by splitting down the middle where the two bases meet. Since the bases will only match with a specific complimentary base, it can rebuild itself using bases free floating in the cell.
How does DNA relate to Genes?
- Every human cell contains 46 chromosomes.
- Each chromosome is made of DNA.
- Each chromosome contains an enormous amount of DNA.
- Each loop of DNA contains even more coils.
- Each molecule of DNA contains two halves that are connected down the center and twisted like a spiral staircase.
How do genes and proteins relate?
In DNA, the order of the bases make up different amino acids. Three bases in a row make an amino acid.

Amino acids make up proteins... so the order of the bases (or amino acids) provides the instructions for how to make specific proteins.

Why proteins? - proteins are the building blocks of all cells. If you have the instructions to make proteins, then you have the instructions to make cells!

Ribosomes
- once the DNA is "unzipped" to be copied, it is fed through a protein assembly line. This factory that reassembles the DNA strand is called a
ribosome
.
Genes and Gene Technology
Changes in genes.
Sometimes when a strand of DNA is being assembled a specific base is replaced with a different base, or the base is left out, or an extra base is added. This change to the code is called a
mutation
.
DNA
Genetic Engineering
Biotechnology
- the use and application of living things and biological processes.

Genetic counseling
- this is provided for parents who are concerned about passing an undesirable trait to their children. They use a chart called a pedigree for tracing traits through generations.

Artificial selection or Selective breeding
- for thousands of years humans have understood how to breed for specific traits. Think of dogs or cows.

Genetic Engineering
- The process in which a piece of DNA is modified for use in research, medicine, agriculture, or industry. Now scientists have the ability to engineer organisms or produce desired traits without breeding animals. They can transfer traits from one type of animal to a completely different organism. This is being used to prevent genetic diseases.
How can DNA become damaged?
A
mutagen
is anything that can cause a mutation in the DNA.

Examples - ultraviolet radiation and x-rays.
How was DNA Discovered?
Types of Mutations
Transcription: The Information in DNA is Copied to Messenger RNA
Many Scientists contributed to the discovery of the structure and function of the DNA molecule.
1869 - Friedrich Miescher identifies a substance that will later be known as DNA
1919 - Phoebus Levene determines that DNA is made up of sugars, phosphate groups, and bases
1950 - Erwin Chargaff observes guanine and cytosine match up and adenine and thymine match up.
1951 - Rosalind Franklin creates images of DNA using x-rays.
1952 - Alfred Hershey and Martha Chase confirm that DNA carries genetic information.
1953 - James Watson and Francis Crick conclude that DNA's shape is a double helix.
Types of RNA:
messenger RNA - mRNA - During
transcription
, DNA is used to make a complimentary strand of mRNA. The RNA bases match up to complementary bases on the DNA template.
Translation: The Information in Messenger RNA is Used to Build Proteins
ribosome
- a ribosome is an organelle made of ribosomal RNA (rRNA) and protein. It is a protein assembly line.

As mRNA passes through the ribosome, transfer RNA (tRNA) molecules deliver amino acids to the ribosome. This is called
translation
.
Cloning
clone
- an organism, cell or piece of genetic material that is genetically identical to the one from which it was derived.
- make copies of DNA at crime scenes
- make copies of DNA from ancient artifacts
- animals (Dolly the sheep)
Full transcript