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Stereotype, Prejudice & Discrimination

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MUHAMAD ZHAFRY HAKIM ABU KHAIR

on 3 December 2013

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Transcript of Stereotype, Prejudice & Discrimination

Stereotype, Prejudice & Discrimination
Stereotyping
Stereotypes about groups are the beliefs and expectations that we have concerning what members of those groups are like.

Includes traits, physical appearance, activity preferences, and behaviors are all common components of stereotypic expectancies.

Either positive or negative attributes; can be accurate or inaccurate, and they can be agreed with or rejected by members of the stereotyped group.
Gender Stereotypes - beliefs concerning the characteristics of women and men contain both positive and negative traits.
Women for positive side viewed as being kind, nurturing, and considerate. For negative side viewed as being dependent, weak, and overly emotional.
Although, women are more than half the population in the US, the power structure remains heavily male dominated: Men own and control most of the wealth and hold the political power (Center for the American Woman and Politics, 2005).
FEMALE TRAITS MALE TRAITS
Warm - Competent
Emotional - Stable
Kind/Polite - Tough/Coarse
Sensitive - Self-Confident
Follower - Leader
Weak - Strong
Friendly - Accomplished
Fashionable - Nonconformist
Gentle - Aggressive
Stereotypes and the Glass Ceiling
defined as a barriers based on attitudinal or organizational bias that prevent qualified females from advancing to top-level positions.
2007, Senator Barack Obama and Hillary Rodham Clinton running for presidential election of USA.

Is African American; woman to be the first President of America?
Hillary Rodham Clinton did break through the glass ceiling. She formerly known as First Lady of the United States from 1993 - 2001. Ar the same time very charismatic lawyer. She was U. S. Senator from New york in 2001 until 2009. In the 2008 election, she was a leading candidate for the Democratic presidential nomination. Hillary Clinton won more primaries and competes than any other female candidate in American history, but narrowly lost to Illinois Senator Barack Obama. Under Obama administration, she appointed as Secretary of State 2009 - 2013.
Madam Halimah Yacob, the 9th Speaker of the Parliament of Singapore since 14 January 2013. She is the first female speaker. And the third consecutive Speaker belonging to a minority race, after Abdullah Tarmugi and Michael Palmer.
Jackson, Esses and Burris (2001) suggest that another variable is Differential Respect - is critical for women attaining high status position. Being seen positively and as having worth.
PREJUDICE
negative attitude
negative emotional responses based on group membership.
age, marital status, occupation, gender, religion, language spoken, sexual orientation, or body weight.
After 9/11 and the Iraq war,
4 in 10 Americans admitted “some feelings of prejudice against Muslims”;
half of non-Muslims in Western Europe perceived Muslims negatively and as “violent” or “Terrorist”.
Theories of Prejudice and Intergroup Conflict
3. Frustration
Competition is an important source of frustration that can fuel prejudice. When 2 groups compete for jobs, housing or social prestige, one group’s goal fulfillment can become the other group’s frustration.
the conflicts between the Israelis and Palestinians, which has been ongoing since the creation of the state of Israel in 1948. Both want control Jerusalem. It is considered holy to the three major Abrahamic religions—Judaism, Christianity and Islam.
Thus, conflict over desirable territory has been considered within
REALISTIC CONFLICT THEORY
to be major cause of prejudice (Bobo, 1983). It suggest when groups compete for scarce resources (Maddux, 2008).
4. Realistic Conflict Theory
2. Social Identity Theory
A theory concerned with the consequences of perceiving ourselves as a member of a social group and identifying with it.

Because people who are identified with our group are most likely to express favoritism toward own group and corresponding bias against out-groups, valuing our own group will have predictable consequences for prejudice (Spears, 1999).



1. Psychoanalytic Theory
Following the ideology and leader, hatred
DISCRIMINATION
less favorable treatment or negative actions directed toward members of disliked groups.


Laws, social pressure, fear of retaliation all serve to deter them from putting their prejudiced views into practice.
Racism - institutional practice that discriminate, even when there is no prejudicial intent. If word-of-mouth hiring practices in an all-White business have the effect of excluding potential non-White employees, the practice could be called racist - even if an employer intended no discrimination.
Religion Prejudice and Discrimination
Unjust treatment against Muslims.
By seeing such groups as completely different from our own, expectations develop so that interactions with members of that group provoke anxiety and are awkward, which, in turns, produces further avoidance of cross-group contact (Plant & Butz, 2006; Vorauer, Hunter, Main, & Roy, 2000).
Intergroup bias. Since religions are forms of in-groups then the people in them would be predisposed to have negative attitudes toward people not in their same religion, especially those that violate the values of their group.
Johnson and others found that religious priming may initiate a general prejudice towards out-groups and that religiosity is correlated with intergroup bias.
PHENOMENAN IN SINGAPORE
Headscarf (Hijab) issue has been the centre of heated national debates in states as diverse as Britain, France, Turkey, and Singapore.
NO TUDUNG POLICY
Article 152 of Singapore’s constitution:
1. It shall be the responsibility of the Government constantly to care for the interest of the racial and religious minorities in Singapore.
2. The Government shall exercise its functions in such manner as to recognize the special position of the Malays, who are the indigenous people of Singapore, and accordingly it shall be the responsibility of the Government to protect, safeguard, support, foster and promote their political, educational, religious, economic, social and cultural interest and the Malay language.

The Hijab clearly in both the Islamic sources of Jurisprudence, the Quran and the hadith (Traditions of the Prophet Muhammad). The Hijab involves covering the aurat, which refers to parts of body except face and palms of the hands.
It is mandatory (Wajib).
It is command from God (Allah).
The Universal Declaration of Human Rights
Article 18.
Everyone has the right to freedom of thought, conscience and religion; this right includes freedom to change his religion or belief, and freedom, either alone or in community with others and in public or private, to manifest his religion or belief in teaching, practice, worship and observance.

The Response and The Policy

 The Government of Singapore banned the Hijab at primary and secondary schools students. Require students to wear uniforms promotes ethnic integration and social cohesion. Hijab as a symbol of exclusiveness that impedes students from social interaction and constitutes a threat to national integration.
 MOE - school dress code. Allowed in post-secondary institutions such as polytechnics and universities.
 The Government-appointed Mufti claimed that Islam did not require young pre-adolescent girls to wear the tudung and that if a choice had to be made, Islam accords higher priority to education than it does to the wearing of a headscarf. Simplified, wear Tudung when hit puberty.
 Malay/Muslim MPs agreed upon the Mufti’s statement.

In the United States, Muslim schoolgirls are permitted to wear the Hijab in public and independent schools.

RELIGION FREEDOM
Women Discrimination
“any distinction, exclusion or restriction made on the basis of sex which has the effect or purpose of impairing or nullifying the recognition, enjoyment or exercise by women, irrespective of their marital status, on a basis of equality of men and women, of human rights and fundamental freedoms in the political, economic, social, cultural, civil or any other field.

GIRLS = HOUSEHOLD SERVANTS
In most developing countries:
When a boy is born, friends and relatives exclaim congratulation.
BUT
When a girl is born, it’s a traditional to greet a family with a new born girls by saying “The Servant of your household has been born”.

A combination of extreme poverty and deep biases against women creates a remorseless cycle of discrimination that keeps girls in developing countries from living up to their full potential.
It leaves them vulnerable to severe physical and emotional abuse.

Obstacles that faced by girls worldwide

In extreme cases, some parents choose to abort their daughter and to kill the baby.
One woman named Lakshmi from Tamil Nadu, an impoverished region of India chose to end her baby’s life by fed her baby girl with an oleander bush mixed with castor oil until the girls bled from the nose and died.
When asked why she chose to end the baby’s life, she said:
“A daughter is always a liabilities. How can I bring up a second?”
“Instead of her suffering the way I do, I thought it was better to get rid of her”.

China has its own long legacy of female infanticide.
China had introduce one child policy.
The one-child policy was enforced in the late 1970s to bring down a rapidly-growing population. Most couples living in cities were only allowed to have one child.

“More than 50 million women were estimated to be ‘missing’ in China because of the institutionalized killing and neglect of girls due to china’s population control program”.
The Chinese government says that sex-selective abortion is one major explanation for the staggering number of chine girls who have simply vanished from the population in the last 20 years.

Poverty-stricken families see their daughters as an economic predicament.
That attitude has resulted in the widespread neglect of baby girls in Africa, Asia, and South America.
In many communities, it is regular practice to breastfeed the baby girls for a shorter time than boys.
Young girls received less food, healthcare and fewer vaccinations overall than boys.
It is tradition to calls for women to eat last, often reduced to picking over the leftovers from he men and the boys.

Neglect
Infanticide & Abortion
Dowry
In developing countries, the birth of a girl causes great upheaval for poor families.
When there is barely enough food to survive, any child puts a strain on a family’s resources.
But the monetary drain of adaughter feels even more severe, especially in regions where dowry is practiced.
Dowry is goods and money a bride’s family pays to the husband’s family.
Dowry came to be seen as payment to the groom’s family for taking on the burden of another woman.
In some countries, dowries are extravagant, costing year’s worth of wages, and often throwing a woman’s family into debt.
UNICEF estimates that around 5000 indian women are killed in dowry-related incident each year.
Abuse
• Women in every society are vulnerable to abuse.
• Mothers who lack their own rights have little protection to offer their daughters, much less themselves, from male relatives and other authority figures.
• The frequency of rape and violent attacks against women in the developing world is alarming.
• Families commit "honor killings" to salvage their reputation tainted by disobedient women.

• Most girls are pulled out at age 9 or 10 when they're useful enough to work all day at home.
• Nine million more girls than boys miss out on school every year, according to UNICEF.
• Housework in developing countries consists of continuous, difficult physical labor. A girl is likely to work from before daybreak until the light drains away.
• There is no time left in the day to learn to read and write or to play with friends.
• She collapses exhausted each night, ready to wake up the next morning to start another long workday.

LABOR
Sex Trafficking
Some families decide it's more lucrative to send their daughters to the city to get job that usually involve hard labor and little pay.
That desperate need for income leaves girl easy prey to sex traffickers, particularly in Southeast Asia, where international tourism gorges the illegal industry.
In Thailand, the sex trade has swelled without into a main sector of the national economy.
The girls who are forced into prostitution to support their families often feel their burden deeply.
Techniques Reducing Prejudice & Discrimination
Cooperation (Brewer, 1996)
Increased Contact
Recategorization
Recategorization or shifts in the boundaries between our in-group (“us”) and some out-group (“them”). As a result, people formerly viewed as out-group members may now be viewed as belonging to the in-group and consequently are viewed more positively.

The Common in-group identity model suggesting that to the extent individuals in different groups view themselves as members of a single social entity, intergroup bias will be reduced.

The benefits of guilt for prejudice
Have a feel collective guilt, based on the actions of other members of their group, when they are confronted with the harm that their group’s prejudice toward another group has produced.

“Just Say No”
Social influence as a means of reducing prejudice

We want to hold beliefs that we see as normative of our group; our prejudices are often predicted by what beliefs we think other members of our own group hold. Providing individuals with evidence suggesting that members of their group hold less prejudiced views than them can reduce prejudice.

• Education is the tool that can help break gender discrimination.
Muhamad Zhafry Hakim Abu Khair
Atiqah Nawawi
Ezzunaira Salleh
Sardar Adli Hassan
Instructor: Dr. Hadijah Jaffri
Examples Of Extreme Discrimination Of Women Throughout The World…
Women are still unable to purchase their own property, vote and wear what they want.
Sex trafficking is still a huge problem.
“honor killing” is still practiced in Middle East.
In Turkey, no protection for women being abused.

Yemeni women are some of the least empowered women in the world.
In Saudi Arabia, Women are not allowed to drive.
In Nepal, if a woman is raped, the perpetrators are not punished.

Subtle Example Of Women Discrimination..

# Labor showed that women are paid only 72 cents for every dollar a man earns.

How Women Are Discriminate Against?

### Discrimination can be seen at all ages and stages of development for women across the world.

Case of Kirkuk is a city in Iraq
Kirkuk city located in Iraq with different ethnic groups namely, Kurdish, Arab, Turkmen and Christian. So this city has been considered as a multicultural city in Iraq where different people from different races live with each other.
Kirkuk city has been considered as one of the richest cities of Iraq where 40% of total natural recourses of this country regarding oil and gass located there.

Main problem between federal government and Kurdistan region government are both of them struggle to get more power or be powerful in this city.
some neighboring countries try to control this city, they do different activities.

Religious Group Conflict
Arab Sunni, Shiites & Kurdish

Saddam Hussein former leader of Iraq didn’t let Kurdish people to live in this city.

As population of Kurdish people in this city was too high, he was afraid that Kurdish people will separate their country from the capital government, and he thought Kirkuk which has lots of oil and gas resources can help Kurdistan to get independent.

In Kirkuk City
3 main races of Arab, Turk and also Kurd having conflict.
Not living peaceful and harmoniously.
Freedom of Religion
The First Amendment (Amendment I) to the United States Constitution prohibits the making of any law respecting an establishment of religion, impeding the free exercise of religion, abridging the freedom of speech, infringing on the freedom of the press, interfering with the right to peaceably assemble or prohibiting the petitioning for a governmental redress of grievances.
ABC "What Would You Do" showing the experiment how bystander responses to prejudice, racism, discrimination and etc.
http://abcnews.go.com/WhatWouldYouDo
JOHN F. DOVIDIO
Professor of Psychology at YALE UNIVERSITY< USA
Research Interests:
Intergroup relations
Prejudice and Stereotyping
Altruism and Helping
Nonverbal Communication
Recently, Debate began Police Officers and Singapore Armed Forces not allowed to wear Tudung. Even Front line services i.e. Nurse.
Urging the Malay-Muslim community to remain patient, he said he and his colleagues will continue discussions with the community, the Prime Minister and Cabinet members
Dr. Yacob Ibrahim
Minister for Communication;
Minister-in-charge of Muslim Affairs
Madam Halimah Yacob
Speaker of the Parliament & MP Jurong
“The leaders appreciated that the Malay Muslim MPs were doing our best on this issue, including raising it regularly with the Prime Minister, although they had hoped to see more progress. They agreed that we could find constructive ways to work together on this issue. Although we frequently had dialogues with the community leaders on various issues, some suggested that we could also have greater engagements on the hijab issue. I understand and empathize with our Muslimah’s wish to fulfill their religious obligations when they go out to work and I hope that at some point the government will review its position on hijab for the nurses.”
Teo Chee Hean, Deputy Prime Minister
“Government understands these community perspectives, but the Government also has the responsibility to balance all these different community requirements, and keep in mind what we need to maintain overall social harmony,”
Former Mufti Sheikh Syed Isa Semait
Current Mufti Mohamed Fatris Bakarum
Racial Prejudice
Every race is Minority
Barack Obama mislabeled as Black (African American) rather than the son of a White woman.
The Skin color more obvious than genetic (nature).
Presented by all group members;
Prepared by MZHBAK.

Sex-selective abortion are even more common than infanticides in India.
In Jaipur, western India, 3500 sex-determined abortions are carried out every year.
The gender ratio in India has dropped to an unnatural low of 927 females to 1000 males due to infanticide and sex-based abortions.
Full transcript