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Transcript of Management
Conducted under the supervision of Elton Mayo
Established that employees work in certain ways based upon their surrounding or the people they are working with.
The experiment also look at how employees productivity increases or decrease to change in the workplace.
Physical change was not what change the increase in productivity it was the fact someone cared to change the work environment.
Expansion and accumulation of resources.
Rationalizing the use of resources.
Expansion into new markets, also ensuring the continuing use of resources.
Development new structure which rationalized the renewal of growth.
Evolution of Management
1880 Scientific Management
Fredrick Taylor's 4 principles on efficiency
The Railroad Industry
The first steam powered train was created in 1804.
Railroads dominated land transportation in the 19th century.
It was considered as the the first big business for the United States.
The Textile Revolution
The Growth of Enterprise
The Industrial Revolution
"In the past man was first. In the future the system will be first." - Frederick Taylor
Replace rule of thumb
Match workers to jobs
Monitor work performance
Allocation of work
1954 Abraham Maslow's Hierarchy of needs
Each level of needs must be fulfilled to incite motivation.
Companies have used this hierarchy as a framework for management techniques for 50 years.
1995 - Aaron Feuerstein,
an ethical role model
CEO at Malden Mills
Company burns to the ground
He used 300 million dollar insurance money to keep workers on salary for 6 months (1.5 million per week)
Feuerstein changed the way many CEOs and managers respect their employees.
"We insist the business must be profitable... But we must also insist a business must have responisbility for its workers, for the community, and for the environment." - Aaron Feuerstein
Robert Owen developed the silent monitor to better manage and motivate workers.
This development reduced the need for strict supervision.
Silent monitors are still used today.
1855 Organizational Business Chart
Daniel C. McCallum creates 1st structured organizational business chart in America
Created corporate hierarchy module that is still used today.
Basic idea of McCallum's chart.
-In 1890 he was working on training dogs to gain classical conditioning.
-While he fed the dogs, he would also feed them a piece of meat.
-After doing this, he realized he could make dogs salivate by just ringing a bell.
-In turn, the concept of motivating workers with rewards has been developed over the years with things like bonuses and commission systems.
Henri Fayol & Max Weber
Chandler delineated four phases in the history of the large U.S. enterprise (1920)
-In the early 1900s, Fayol begins writing about leadership and the theory of management.
-After reading these, Weber takes what he learns and develops organizational structures.
-Weber eventually coins the term, "bureaucracy," which is management by office.
-Worked at Bell Laboratories in 1930 and developed the "Statistical Process Control."
-This was used to assist the analysis of data in the context of variation.
-Shewart developed a control chart to help explain variation and how we need to reduce variation to achieve "quality."
-Through writings of Norman Vincent Peale and studying the work of Scotland's Jack Black, the benefits of "Positive Thinking" are apparent and it is clear how they help the individual, the organization, and the society.
-Wrote the book "Punished By Rewards."
-This book focused on reestablishing the importance in how giving rewards to workers creates a better environment for everyone.
-The book also argues that we are in fact driven by our intrinsic needs from work.
Daniel C. McCallum
The first commercial steam engine made its debut in 1698.
In 1785 James Watt revamped the design and made steam engines more efficient.
The steam engine was added to to the locomotive industry and created a whole new transportation era.
The Steam Engine
The Wright Brothers
Henry Lewis Gantt
Gantt created a chart better known as the Gantt Chart.
Introduced in 1917.
Chart is designed so foremen and supervisors can quickly know whether production is on, ahead, or behind schedule.
Modern project management software includes this critical function today.
Alfred D. Chandler
"Keen eye for the growth of large organizations".
How Wright's aircraft successfully flies towards increasing productivity
The wright brothers make the first successful Airplane Flight
Their successful invention leads to:
Communicating to the World
Grabbing attention of US War Department
U.S. Army Signal Corps buying aircraft
Another means of travel/ faster
Wren, Daniel A., Arthur G. Bedeian, and Daniel A. Wren. "The First Computer." The Evolution of Management Thought. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley, 2009. 67-68. Print.
"Wright Brothers." Bashapedia /. N.p., n.d. Web. 21 Feb. 2014.
Bellis, Mary. "The Inventions of Thomas Edison." About.com Inventors. About.com, 20 Dec. 2013. Web. 21 Feb. 2014.
The Hawthorne Experiment
(Late 1920's into early 1930's)
"The desire to stand well with one's fellows, the so-called human instinct of association, easily outweighs the merely individual interest and the logic of reasoning upon which so many spurious principles of management are based". (Mayo,1933)
The Hawthorne Experiment changed how supervisors make changes to the work environment. Supervisors today base their changes off of this experiments outcome.
He demonstrated the first practical mechanical calculator, known as the computer.
His computer had all the basic elements we use today: Memory device, arithmetic unit, and external memory storage
To sustain controlled
flights in a powered aircraft
and allow Flights to be
Thomas Edison invents the incandescent light bulb
In 1879, using lower current electricity, a small carbonized filament, and an improved vacuum inside the globe, he was able to produce a reliable, long-lasting source of light.
Today our modern bulbs are made from
the concept of his invention.
It also lead to the development of:
durable light bulbs
the underground conductor network
the devices for maintaining
light sockets with