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Striking fear into our hearts from the beginning of computer technology AND BEYOND

Julia Maund

on 3 November 2014

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Transcript of Cyberwarfare

What is cyberwarfare?
What is Cyberwarfare?
The use of computers and other devices to attack an enemy's information systems. (dictionary.com)
considered the fifth domain(after land, sea, air and space) of warfare (secpoint.com) yet remains undefined
Possible Risks when dealing with Cyberwarfare
Can hide people's involvement

Pre-Emptive strike

Disrupts life

Understandability/Undefined at present




People Impacted
Economic Impact
Valuable intellectual property lost
-Example: 2010 Google

Reports of Espionage
-Example: Shells and Rolls Royce

Loss of several billion dollars

Access to personal information
-Example: Government officials and entertainers

Readiness: U.S. is simply not "equipped" for a Cyber attack (techopedia.com)
Example Attacks on the USofA
Moonlight Maze [1998-2000]
- Discovered infiltration of NASA, Pentagon, Energy Dept, research labs
- Info obtained contained several military maps, installation programs, designs
- Who done it?... Source: Former Sov.U - gov't denied involvement but those responsible unknown
- Cold War fears still present

Mountain View [2001] - Place of discovery
- Network of hacked cities
- Searching for utilities, gov't office info, emergency systems
- Who done it?... Source: Middle East & South Asia
Who is cyber warfare attractive to?
Striking fear into our hearts from the beginning of modern technology AND BEYOND
Before discussing the in depth explanation of what is cyberwarfare, it is important to understand the various types of cyber threats and the security infrastructure designed to lessen and put down cyberattacks.
A cyber threat is characterized by attackers, target system, set of actions against the target, and the consequences resulting from the attack

Types of Attackers
Corporate Spies
The Security Infrastructure

Involved in protection of networked computers and information from cyber threats.

Objective is to prevent, deter, detect, recover from, and respond to threats in cyberspace

Includes information technology, procedures and practices, laws and regulations, and people and organizations
Rise in Hacktivists
- Hacked CIA web site in addition to PBS, Sony, Senate
- JUST FOR KICKS & expose vulnerability

Bettering US cyberdefense
More regulation of the private sector
Public dialogue about cyberwarfare
Crack down on cyber criminals so they don't become cyber warriors.
Cyberwar limitations treaty
Fund research and development for the private sector
Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency
Like most things, there are basic principles that cyberwarfare attacks will embody.
Cyberwarfare Basics

Three types of cyber weapons
Offensive Weapons
Dual Use Tools
Defensive Tools

What is the United States doing to stop cyber attacks?
Training cyber warriors
Cooperation with private sector
Comprehensive National Cybersecurity Initiative
US Cyber Command
Einstein system
Great firewall of China
Can entirely disconnect from the internet.
North Korea can do the same only more quickly.

"I think the bottom line on the
Mountain View
case is the ease with which people can do virtual reconnaissance from overseas on our physical infrastructure and on our cyber infrastructure, and the difficulty that we have in knowing what is being done."
- Richard Clarke,
former White House cyber security advisor
Reasons for a Cyber Attack by a country
Harm to securities' ability to properly function
Direct harm to another nation's services
During a time of war
Launch a full scale cyber war
One of 7 major cyber countries
- can control commercial operations
- access to intellectual property
- interfere with military operations
China & Russia formerly greatest nuclear threats
- transition to cyber threat
- nuclear bombs = low deniability
- cyber attacks = high deniability
China not small but cyberwar becoming more attractive to smaller countries
- limited requirements: cheap equipment/ computers + brain power
China and US
> 24 US military weapons/tech programs stolen
- access to decades of research & billions in dev
- Gains:
1) Ability to counter weapons
2) low cost to dev tech w/ foundation in place

Systematic attacks w/o US opposition
i.e. research & dev, trade secrets from corps, power grids, source codes
- companies too afraid to report weakness

Obama administration
- "Pivot to Asia" foreign policy
Possible Benefits
Grants an advantage to a county

Cheaper Weapons

Reduction of life

Allows "non-state actors" global reach
Possible Future Impact
Warfare could be made worse

The Attacks that are made and who they are directed at could change

Small states are more likely to adopt Cyberwarfare

Reboot Quote: "We are all connected on a vast global network and whoever controls the network controls the world."
Global examples of
Clarke, Richard A., and Robert K. Knake. Cyber War. New York, NY: HarperCollins, 2010. Print.
"FERC Proposes to Adopt New Cyber Security Standards." FERC. Federal Energy Regulatory Commission, 18 Apr. 2013. Web. 15 July 2013. <http://www.ferc.gov/media/news-releases/2013/2013-2/04-18-13-E-7.asp#.UeRctBYXQtt>.
"Our Work." DARPA. Defense Advanced Research Projects, Web. 15 July 2013. <http://www.darpa.mil/our_work/>.
Okoye, John. The Truth About Cybersecurity. Techopedia. Janalta Interactive Sites. 5 April 2013. Web. 11 July 2013.
Maurer, Tim. The Real Risk of Cyber Warafre. Oti. New America Foundation. 21 February 2013. Web. 11 July 2013.
Murphy, Samantha. Experts Say Looming Cyber Warfare Attacks Could Be 'Catastrophic'. Mashable. n.p. 30 January 2013. Web. 11 July 2013.
"U.S. GAO - Critical Infrastructure Protection: National Plan for Information Systems Protection." Critical Infrastructure Protection: National Plan for Information Systems Protection. U.S. Government Accountability Office, n.d. Web. 15 July 2013. <http://www.gao.gov/products/AIMD-00-90R>.
The National Strategy to Secure Cyberspace. Rep. Department of Defense, Feb. 2003. Web. 15 July 2013. <http://www.defense.gov/home/features/2010/0410_cybersec/docs/cyberspace_strategy%5B1%5D.pdf>.
Hsia, Tim & Sperli, Jared. How Cyberwarfare and Drones have revolutioned Warfare. Mobile.nytimes. 17 June 2013. Web. 11 July 2013.
Paganini, Pierluigi. The Rise of Cyber Weapons and Relative Impact on Cyberspace. Resources.infosecinstitute. Infosec Institute. 5 October 2012. Web. 11 July 2013.
What is Cyberwarfare?. Secpoint. n.p. n.d. Web. 11 July 2013.
Interactive Map about Cyber attacks
Interactive Map About Cyber Attacks
Bibliography cont.
Al JazeeraEnglish. “Anonymous: The New Face of Cyber-War.” YouTube. YouTube, 2011. Web. 2 July 2013.

Atherton, Kelsey D. “Chinese Hackers Steal Plans to Dozens of U.S. Weapons Systems.” Popular Science. Bonnier Corporation, 2012. Web. 9 July 2013.

“Cyber War is U.S. ‘Red Herring’ to Put Pressure on China.” RT. TV-Novosti, 2013. Web. 9 July 2013.

Dillow, Clay. “Richard Clarke: China Is Planting Digital Bombs Throughout the U.S. Power Grid.” Popular Science. Bonnier Corporation, 2012. Web. 9 July 2013.

Lepton, Kevin. “Future Cyberwarfare.” Future Technology 500. Future Technology 500, 2013. Web. 30 June 2013.

Nakashima, Ellen. “CIA Web Site Hacked; Group LulzSec Takes Credit.” The Washington Post. The Washington Post, 2011. Web. 30 June 2013.

Serabian Jr., John A. “Cyber Threats and the US Economy.” Central Intelligence Agency. OpenGov, 2008. Web. 2 July 2013.

“The Warnings?” Frontline. PBS, 2013. Web. 30 June 2013.

Tabansky, Lior. “Basic Concepts in Cyber Warfare”. Reblazecdn.net. Volume 3, Number 1, May 2011. Pages 75-89, Web. July 10, 2013. http://cdn.www.inss.org.il.reblazecdn.net/upload/(FILE)1308129610.pdf

Latham, Robert, ed. Bombs and Bandwidth. New York: The New Press, 2003. Print.
How will cyberwarfare affect the future of warfare?
What is the United States doing to defend itself from cyberattacks?
Full transcript