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Transcript of Tuberculosis Prezi
singing airborne: inhale droplets Most Likely to Get Infected people who:
-have been in contact w/ someone with MDR TB
-have not been taking their medication properly
-have come from places where MDR TB is common
-have developed TB again after taking the medicine in the past Target Cells/Tissues/Organs within Host Colonize and multiply in the lungs
Live/replicate/infect macrophages: triggers inflammation and damage Works Cited http://textbookofbacteriology.net/tuberculosis_3.html http://www.cdc.gov/tb/publications/factsheets/drtb/mdrtb.htm http://radiographics.rsna.org/content/26/5/1449/F17.expansion.html Symptoms A bad cough lasting longer
than 3 weeks Pain in the chest Coughing up blood Weakness or fatigue Weight loss No Appetite Chills Fever Sweating at night Diagnosis 1. Medical History
2. Physical Examination
3. Test for TB infection
4. Chest Radio graph
5. Diagnostic Microbiology
6. Drug Resistance Test for TB What is it? * The Mantoux tuberculin skin test (TST)
* Tuberculin is injected into lower part of arm.
* The test is read within 48 to 72 hours
The TB blood test measures the patient’s immune system reaction to M. tuberculosis. Chest Radiograph * detect chest abnormalities
*Lesions may appear anywhere in the lungs and may differ in size, shape, density, and cavitation
*Lesion: An abnormal change in structure of an organ or part due to injury or disease Treatment Multi-drug Resistant Tuberculosis Mycobacterium Tuberculosis Unicellular bacterium First Line Defense Isoniazid, Rifampin,
Ethambutol, Pyrazinamide Second Line Defense Aminoglycosides *inhibit bacteria protein synthesis
* Disrupt proofreading
* Disrupt bacterial cell membrane Kanamycin Amikacin Capreomycin How many people are affected? 1/3 of the world population is infected with tuberculosis Each year, about
cases are estimated
to emerge..... 27 countries account for 85% of all MDR-TB cases
only 1% receive proper treatment. *high-burden countries
South Africa **China and India carry approximately 50% of the global burden, and the Russian Federation a further 7%. *In a study of MDR-TB patients from 2005 to 2008 in various countries, 43.7% had resistance to at least one second-line drug. MDR-TB: reaching all corners of the world Endemic: A disease that is maintained in a population – in a steady state. 1. Direct Causes:
Improper use of antibiotics
patients do not complete full course of treatment
Healthcare providers prescribe the wrong treatment, wrong dosage, length of time
Drug shortages - availability of materials
Poor quality drugs
Homelessness 2. Indirect Causes:
climbing costs of drugs
interruption in drug supply
out-of-reach for uncovered patients
i.e. -students, temp workers, undocumented
working with Co-Pay or limit Economics Global projection
The WHO estimates USD $2 billion is needed in 2015 for diagnosis and treatment for MDR-TB.
Costs for second-line drugs alone amount to USD $0.3 billion a year.
California / U.S.
Total MDR-TB Drug Costs $101,553 (common hospital) or
$ 64,352 (340 B clinic)
represents treatment costs for 24 mos.
*Cost of drugs for treating the average MDR-TB patient can be 50 to 200 times higher than the cost of treating a drug susceptible TB patient. In developed & developing countries:
Crowding increases risk of exposure
Urbanization and homelessness
staying in shelters exacerbates transmission
Lack of knowledge
In a year each MDR- TB patient can infect 10- 20 people Environment Virtually all countries have identified laboratory capacity as the primary bottleneck to scaling up diagnosis and treatment.
Lack of laboratory infrastructure and transport networks needed to provide a rapid diagnosis.
Eastern Mediterranean Region:
High number of countries in conflict - limiting survey coverage of the disease.
second-line drug resistance is unknown.
Western Pacific Region:
Limited capacity for culture and drug susceptibility testing. Political Fluroquinolones Inhibit synthesis of DNA Ofloxacin Ciprofloxacin Para-aminosalicylic Acid *Inhibit folic acid synthesis Prevention Take all medication
healthcare provider Keep windows open in your home, if possible, until your doctor says you cannot pass TB germs to others. Don't miss any doses
Don't stop early Get Tested Avoid close contact with individual
in closed or crowded space such
as hospitals, prisons, and homeless shelter Don’t spend time in closed spaces with others until your doctor or healthcare provider says you can’t pass TB germs on to others. Target Cells/Tissues/Organs within Host colonize and multiply in the lungs
live within/replicate within/infect macrophages: triggers inflammation and damage