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History: Displacement and New Settlements in Canada (1713-18
Transcript of History: Displacement and New Settlements in Canada (1713-18
Table of Contents
Why I chose this Topic...
I chose to focus on displacement and new settlements because I'm fascinated in the movement of people. Also because, I too have experienced migrating, I am interested in how it happened between 1713-1800 in Canada
The Acadians were 17th Century French Colonists and some Metis. They settled in Acadia, a distinctly separate colony in New France. They were associated with the French, Cajuns, French Canadians and Metis. They were displaced into all of Canada and parts of the United States.
Who Were They?
Although the Acadians were originally French Colonists, they spoke many languages. Along with their native Acadian French (a dialect of french), they spoke Quebec French, English and Chiac. During the 17th Century, most French Colonists were Roman Cathlics. Because the Acadians were 17th Century French Colonists, the majority of them were also Roman Catholics.
The Acadians were from Acadia. It was a seperate colony of New France from French Colony of Canada. Acadia was geographically and administratively seperated from (modern-day Quebec) French Colony of Canada. The first capital of Acadia was Port Royal, also called Annapolis Royal (established 1605). Later, in 1719, Halifax was founded and became the capital.
During the 17th and 18th centuries, 6 colonial wars took place in Acadia. These wars significantly influenced the displacement and expulsion of the Acadians. 4 of these wars were between the French and the Indians (literally called the French and Indian Wars). The other 2 were "Father Rale's War" and "Father Le Loutre's War". In the Last war between the French and the Indians, the result was the "British" expulsion of the Acadians from their land. So after the war, the Acadians fled out of Acadia or remained there. Most of the Acadians came out of hiding, remained in Acadia, some migrated to Louisiana (became Cajuns), or they returned to France. In the end, the French was defeated by the British in 1710( (Seige of Port Royal).
Where are they now?
Approximate Population: 1 million (including cajuns)
Acadian French speakers: 370 000
Canadian Population: 96145
-New Brunswick: 25 400
-Quebec: 32 950
-Nova Scotia: 11 180
-Lousiana: 56 000
-Maine: 30 001
*there are Acadians in other parts of the world but not significant enough population
American Revolutionary War Loyalists
Who were the loyalists? During the American Revolutionary War in 1776, loyalists (also called Tories or King's Men) were devoted American Colonists, who were loyal to the British Empire and the British Monarchy, who came to Canada from the U.S. They remained patriotic to Britain and found new land when they lost everything to the opponents the Patriots (Americans. What was that new land you ask? It was Canada!
Where did they come from?
The loyalists were mostly from the eastern side of the U.S. There were some from the other parts but not a significant enough amount. They had to travel from their homes, jobs, and sometimes families, during and after the war to find new land. Here are some places they came to Canada from.....
-East and West Florida
Why did the Loyalists stay Loyal?
-They were older, better established, and resisted radical change.
-They felt that rebellion against "the Crown"-the legitimate government-was morally wrong.
-They were alienated when the Patriots (American soldiers) resorted to violence such as burning houses and "tarring and feathering".
-They wanted to take a middle-of-the-road position and were angry when forced by the Patriots to declare their opposition.
-They had a long-lasting sentimental attachment to Britain (often with business and family links).
-They were procrastinators who realized that independence was bound to come some day, but wanted to postpone the moment.
-They were cautious and afraid that chaos and mob rule would result.
-Some were pessimists who lacked the confidence in the future displayed by the Patriots. Others recalled the dreadful experiences of Scots who rebelled in Scotland and lost their lands when the king won.
-They felt that the colonial assemblies and Parliament were the only legal channels of democracy, government and reform.
-They felt themselves to be weak and threatened within American society and in need of an outside defender such as the British Crown and Parliament.
-They lived on the frontier and relied on the peaceful land negotiations and treaties that the British Government had contracted between European settlers and Native Americans.
-They had been promised freedom from slavery.
-They felt that being a part of the British Empire was crucial in terms of commerce and military protection.
During the 18th Century, in Canada, slavery was still legal. When the Loyalists came to Canada, they were accompanied by approximately 2000 slaves. Some of them became "Black loyalists" and fought alongside the British. Others were brought to work. However, there was a problem with bringing this many slaves. The Loyalists brought too many slaves and there wasn't enough work to be done. So what did they do? They freed most of them. After they were freed a significant amount of them became Black Loyalists and lived their lives in Canada. Others returned to pursue life in America. Unfortunately, some were forced become slaves again.
Where did they go?
After the Loyalists were defeated, around 15% of them (65 000-70 000 Loyalists) were displaced and resettled into other parts of the British Empire, in Britain, or elsewhere in British North America. Colonists from the southern region, mostly moved to Florida (which remained loyal to the Crown) or to British Caribbean possessions. In the north, most colonists migrated to Ontario, Quebec, New Brunswick, and Nova Scotia. There, they were called United Empire Loyalists. A large amount of them received Canadian land or British money through formal claim procedures.
St. Catharines was settled by 3000 United Empire Loyalists at the end of the 18th century. Most of the Loyalists were farmers, so they found the land superb. They excelled in the area's open fields fertile soils and permanent streams. St. Catharines was a very attractive location for a settlement. From 1790, the settlement was called "The Twelve". It was known as an agricultural community and for its services to travellers along the native trails at the foot of the escarpment.
The Welland Canal was an enormous part of settling St. Catharines. The canal was created by "The Welland Canal Company". It was created to provide a more reliable water supply for the mills while at the same time function as a canal. With a creation of a canal, came numerous opportunities for new settlers to find jobs. This was a main attraction point for settlers who were looking for some where to establish themselves.
The old Welland Canal in St. Catharines (18th Century).
Migration: 18th and 21st Centuries
When I was 2 years old, I migrated with my family to Canada. In our modern day, we use passports and fly in planes when traveling. I'm curious on all the procedures and steps they took in the 18th century.
First Official Law
In 1828, the first legislative recognition was passed by Britain during the Great Migration of Canada. It issued that Britain was responsible for the safety and well-being of immigrants leaving the British Isles. The name of the law was called, An Act to Regulate the Carrying of Passengers in Merchant Vessels. The Act limited the number of passengers who could be carried on a ship, regulated the space allocated to them, and required that passengers be supplied adequate sustenance on the voyage. The Act is now known as the foundation of British colonial emigration legislature.
Over-crowding during voyages to Canada, in the 18th Century.
In the 18th Century, just before planes were invented, settlers traveled using ships. Most of the time these trips were miserable. With limited space and almost no food supply, most travelers died ON the way to their destination! Not only were there diseases and illnesses (such as scurvy), but most voyageurs had to handle spending hours on a ship with literally no space, no food, and almost no where to sit.
After completing the project, I confirmed that the topic I used was very useful. Although I focused on displacement and new settlements, I learned a lot about the History of Canada in general. For example, I learned all about the American Revolutionary.
en.wikipedia.org-American Revolutionary War Loyalists
en.wikipedia.org-History of St.Catharines
en.wikipedia.org-History of migration
www.stcatharines.com-History of the city