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2014 AP Exam Essay #4

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Phillip Yang

on 16 June 2014

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Transcript of 2014 AP Exam Essay #4

Essay #4
Analyze the differences in the ideas held by various Enlightenment figures concerning the roles of women in European society.

2014 AP Exam Essays
Phillip Yang
Jackson Daly
Samantha Williams
Jimmy Nguyen
Isabella Deatherage
Brianna Williams

Autopsy Phrases
As a result of the scientific revolution, women were proven to have small skulls which lead to the conclusion that women were not meant to gather as much knowledge as men.
Because familial structures were always male- dominated throughout ancient history, women did not begin to face equal treatment until the late 19th century.
Due to the fact that Locke did not give women full rights; the Declaration of Independence, derived from Locke's idea of Natural Laws, did not grant American women full rights either.
Furthermore, since the Enlightenment was an era of reason and new thought, these ideas became the new foundation therefore making women's rights even more improbable
In addition to being less capable of education, Rousseau expresses that females are inferior to males in his book,
Émile.
The result was the rise of suffragettes in the following century.
This is why Immanuel Kant excluded women from rights to citizenship.
Thus according to Edmund Burke, traditions should not be altered with.
What this meant was Locke wasn't exactly a feminist because he limited female rights.
What this shows us is women were not looked upon as objects but an important family member who was inferior to the husband.
Yet, while French women were inspired by Locke's famous phrase: "Liberty, Life, and Property" and marched to Versailles, they were not granted any rights.
Which allowed for philosophes to believe women were not born to learn and excel equally to men.
Which resulted in the Declaration of Woman and Female Citizen as a response for excluding women's rights.
Which meant that even though philosophes like Rousseau and Locke believed in individual freedom and importance, they did not believe that women were equal to men.
While Edmund Burke claimed that a lifetime was not enough to change traditions such as the family structure, John Stuart Mill rebuffed his statement.
As a result of the scientific revolution, women were proven to have small skulls which lead to the conclusion that women were not meant to gather as much knowledge as men.
Because familial structures were always male- dominated throughout ancient history, women did not begin to face equal treatment until the late 19th century.
Due to the fact that Locke did not give women full rights; the Declaration of Independence, derived from Locke's idea of Natural Laws, did not grant American women full rights either.
Olmype de Gouges
Due to the fact that Locke did not give women full rights; the Declaration of Independence, derived from Locke's idea of Natural Laws, did not grant American women full rights either.
Furthermore, since the Enlightenment was an era of reason and new thought, these ideas became the new foundation therefore making women's rights even more improbable
In addition to being less capable of education, Rousseau expresses that females are inferior to males in his book,
Émile.
The result was the rise of suffragettes in the following century.
The result was the rise of suffragettes in the following century.
This is why Immanuel Kant excluded women from rights to citizenship.
Thus according to Edmund Burke, traditions should not be altered with.
What this meant was Locke wasn't exactly a feminist because he limited female rights.
What this shows us is women were not looked upon as objects but an important family member who was inferior to the husband.
Which allowed for philosophes to believe women were not born to learn and excel equally to men.
Yet, while French women were inspired by Locke's famous phrase: "Liberty, Life, and Property" and marched to Versailles, they were not granted any rights.
Which allowed for philosophes to believe women were not born to learn and excel equally to men.
Which resulted in the Declaration of Woman and Female Citizen as a response for excluding women's rights.
Which meant that even though philosophes like Rousseau and Locke believed in individual freedom and importance, they did not believe that women were equal to men.
While Edmund Burke claimed that a lifetime was not enough to change traditions such as the family structure, John Stuart Mill rebuffed his statement.
II. 17 Facts about Rousseau:

1.) Rousseau’s view on the nature of the relationship between men and women is rooted in the notion that men are stronger and therefore more independent.
2.) Women have particular talents that men do not; Rousseau says that women are cleverer than men, and that they excel more in matters of practical reason.
3.) “Always justify the burdens you impose upon girls but impose them anyway. . . . They must be thwarted from an early age. . . . They must be exercised to constraint, so that it costs them nothing to stifle all their fantasies to submit them to the will of others.” -Rousseau's writing Emile
4.) Rousseau separated the definition of inequalities into two parts. Natural and Social.
5.) Natural inequalities are the differences of age, health, bodily strength, and qualities of mind or soul
6.) Social inequalities are the different privileges enjoyed by some at the expense of others, such as being richer, more honored, more powerful than they, or even causing themselves to be obeyed by them
7.) Rousseau strictly speaks of men and the only time he mentions women he says, " they are the sex that ought to obey" (Wootton 392)
8.) Rousseau claims that natural inequalities are the root to social inequalities, one can determine that women are socially unequal.
9.) "Who would have believed that the chastisement I received at eight from a thirty-year-old girl would have determined my tastes, desires, and passions for the rest of my life?"
10.) The thirty-year-old girl was his servant
11.) "The education of women should always be relative to that of men. To please, to be useful to us, to make us love and esteem them, to educate us when young, to take care of us when grown up, to advise, to console us, to render our lives easy and agreeable; these are the duties of women at all times, and what they should be taught in their infancy."
12.) Rousseau wanted women’s education to prepare them to serve men.
13.) A woman's education he stated was meant to help her learn how to think, make judgments, develop her mind as well as to keep her appearance and run a household
14.) Rousseau also thought that women were dependent men and that they were just objects.
15.) Rousseau also feared of a society that would be run by women.
16.) He wrote Emile (On Education)
17.) He wrote Julie (New Heloise)
MORE INFO

http://www.iep.utm.edu/rousseau/
http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/kant-social-political/
http://polsci101.wordpress.com/2009/11/11/lockes-view-of-women/
http://muse.jhu.edu/journals/eighteenth-century_life/summary/v034/34.3.blum.html
http://polsci101.wordpress.com/2009/11/05/jean-jacques-rousseau-political-theorist-and-hater-of-women/
http://feminism.eserver.org/theory/papers/womens-education.txt
http://womenshistory.about.com/blrous1.htm
https://blsciblogs.baruch.cuny.edu/kaufmaneng2850/2012/09/12/365/
http://www.womeninworldhistory.com/lesson16.html
http://www.csupomona.edu/~plin/ls201/rousseau5.html
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jean-Jacques_Rousseau#Major_works

II. 17 Facts about Voltaire
II. 17 Facts about John Locke:
18.) in Voltaire's Candide, the women were undeveloped characters
19.) the women do not contribute to Candide
20.) portrayed women as easy
21.) showed women using their sexuality to their advantage; escaping dreadful situations
22.) illustrates physical inferiority of women
23.) describes gruesome rape scenes
24.) gives women no power in his writing; portrayed as the males' objects
25.) Cunegonde, main female character in Candide, finishes the story ugly and corrupt
26.) appreciated high class, educated women; otherwise frowned upon them
27.) Voltaire sees women as weak creatures
28.) women represented as helpless, yet show incredible resilience and strength
29.) Candide's lacks the equal rights contradicts Enlightenment values
30.) Voltaire makes women strong simply because they had to adapt to the terrible conditions he put them in
31.) makes women oblivious to everything going on around them
32.) perceives women as less value then men
33.) victimizes the women with no help for them
34.) "A man loved by a beautiful woman will always get out of trouble." -Voltaire
Outline
III. Analysis
IV. Conclusion

What views did Enlightened figures have on women’s roles in society?
What were the traditional roles of women and how were they questioned?
Who opposed women’s rights and who supported them?

10 Facts:
Scientific revolution proved women had smaller skulls and wider hips therefore showing that women were meant for child labor and small knowledge
Women throughout the Middle Ages were mostly household wives inferior to the husband
Women's rights were rarely brought up until John Stuart Mill opposed the traditional gender structure
Rousseau did not favor women’s rights and argued against them in his novel,
Emile
Rousseau’s view on the nature of the relationship between men and women is rooted in the notion that men are stronger and therefore more independent
Rousseau stated woman's education was meant to help her learn how to think, make judgments, develop her mind as well as to keep her appearance and run a household
Voltaire wrote
Candide
which portrays women as impotent and immaterial
Voltaire illustrates physical inferiority of women
John Locke believed women were not property
Locke was not a feminist, but a believer of individual rights
Locke believed that women and their opinions were subordinate to men

AP Extras:
“Always justify the burdens you impose upon girls but impose them anyway. . . . They must be thwarted from an early age. . . . They must be exercised to constraint, so that it costs them nothing to stifle all their fantasies to submit them to the will of others.” (
Emile
by Rousseau)

Check it out : http://www.iep.utm.edu/rousseau/
35. women are not property
36. women could actually own property = power
37. still did not think women = men (limits their power)
38. women cannot enter war
39. gives power to women (mothers) in households only when the father is missing (limits power)
40. women’s opinions = subordinate to men’s
41. women have right to leave marriage as they wish
42. land = passed down from father to son (wife would be left with nothing w/o husband)
43. thinks that children should unconditionally respect their mothers
44. the one condition of Locke (respect) is not something tangible for women in society
45. not considered a feminist, but best step in the right direction
46. Wanteds women to have no power in government
47. He didn’t imply that he didn’t want women to be superior, because he attended a Quaker meeting with preacher Rebecca Collier
48.. “Man [...] the abler and stronger”
49. women = limited significance w/ presence of men
50. “all men” = everyone VS. “all men” = just males
51. not a feminist, but believer in individual rights
I. Thesis:
During the 18th century science drove change throughout Europe and caused Europe to enter the age of Enlightenment. This time period was an age of reasoning where various Enlightened philosophers analyzed life with reason and were influenced by scientific thinkers from the Scientific Revolution that had undermined religious beliefs and roots. Furthermore, with this new found reason, philosophes such as Voltaire, John Locke and Jean-Jacques Rousseau analyzed women's role in society and had strengthened the belief of a male-dominated society.
Blue Sheet
Locke:
Although Locke had praised women for their talents and importance in the family structure, women were not granted full access to "Life, liberty, and property" as the famously stated which displays his disapproval for gender equality.

Rousseau:
Rousseau did believe women had a right to educate by only for the purpose of serving men and making household work more efficient by granting limited knowledge to oppress them.

Voltaire:
In his book,
Candide
, all female characters played no important roles except to be treated and passed around like objects which displayed how Voltaire had degraded women's role in society.
Philosophes were drive from the theories and practices of the Scientific Revolution: which had changed Europe's unstable religious conflicts by replacing theology with theories of evolution and reason. Therefore when philosophes sprung to fame, Europeans had followed their ideology of women, laws, and society. Their ideals on women were mostly similar because they stated that women were inferior to men and because of this, women's rights were obviated until the 20th century.
Frame
Check it out at :http://polsci101.wordpress.com/2009/11/11/lockes-view-of-women/
Check out full view: http://web.clas.ufl.edu/users/ufhatch/pages/02-TeachingResources/ClioElectric/1-Electronic%20Texts/Hatch-Voltaire%20-%20On%20women.pdf
Full transcript