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China: A Global History Perspective

A brief exploration of the history, culture, and society of China.

Chase Campbell

on 24 July 2015

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Transcript of China: A Global History Perspective

The Middle Kingdom

The Dynasties
The Republic, WWII, and Revolution
Mao's China
Post-Mao and Present
China at a Glance
Size: 3,598,600 sq. mi. Rank: #3
Population: 1,336,718,015 Rank: #1
Pop. Density: 354 people. per sq. mi. (800-900 in some eastern cities)
Languages: Mandarin (official) is world’s most spoken language, & many others
Ethnic groups: Han (91.9%), Tibetan, Mongol, Korean, Manchu, & others
91.5 % Han Chinese with 55 other recognized minorities
Tibet (Xizang)
Inner Mongolia
China is divided into 6 major geographic areas.
Geographic features
Deserts to the West
Mountains to the Southwest
Dense Jungle and Hills to the South
The Pacific Ocean to the East
Traditional China
North and South China are separated
by the Qinling Mountains home to unique species such as the Giant Panda, Clouded Leopard, and
Snub-nosed monkey
A plain, flatter, colder, semi-arid, short growing season
Huang He valley provides good farmland.
Grows wheat , barley, and millet
Contains Beijing, the current Capital
Contains the Yangtze (Chang) and Xi Rivers
Many other small
rivers promoting boat travel and trade
Warmer, wetter than the North
China’s “Rice Bowl” where they produce most of their rice
Allows double-cropping
Mountainous, but fertile
In North China where Chinese civilization began.
Also called the
“Yellow River”
due to silt/loess.
Regular flooding helps farmer (water + fertile soil brought to land)
Dynasties tried to create dykes, levees, and other works to control the frequent floods
Yangtze floods devastated the South from drowning, famine, and disease.
3,964 miles long;
for over 1,000 miles.
Very useful for trade, transportation, communication, and farming.
Floods could also cause disasters
Chang (Yangtze) River
Example of INTERACTION with environment
Chinese take mountains and create farm land by digging giant “steps” into the

Labor intensive
Tibet (Xizang)
Inner Mongolia
China is divided into 6 major geographic areas.
North eastern China
Cold climate (similar to Canada’s)
Rich in natural resources
); it is China’s main industrial region.
Historically it was a separate country with a different ethnic group (the Manchus)
Huang He River
Inner Mongolia
North central China (south of the country of Mongolia)
Gobi Desert
Effect on China:
isolates China from the north & west.
Nomadic Mongols live there.
Northwest China
Talka Makan Desert dominates it
Sparsely populated
Recent oil discoveries have made this region more important to China.
Formerly an independent nation (Tibet);
conquered by China
in 1953.
Unhappy as part of China; wants independence.
Mainly Buddhist population
; Buddhism’s
Dalai Lama was leader and exiled by the Chinese.
Lhasa: Holy City in Tibet
Summer Monsoons
April – October
Warm weather
Rainy season
Bring water for rice crops
Winter Monsoons
October – March
Highest mountain range in the world; includes Mt. Everest. Snow covered all year.
A major barrier that
isolates China from western Asia (India) and Europe.
Extremely difficult to cross; travel, trade, and cultural diffusion severely limited.
The Himalaya Mountains
What are the Effects of China’s Natural Environment on Chinese History?
People crowded in the eastern third
Isolated China
Little cultural diffusion
Developed their own, separate culture
Protection from invasion
See themselves as center of civilization
Leads to
The Dynastic Cycle
The Dynastic Cycle is a theory that every
, or imperial family, goes through a cycle from rise to fall
The Mandate of Heaven
New Dynasty / Young Dragon
Energetic, active, protects people, sets up law & order; sometimes wastes resources/ineffective
Established Dynasty/Mature Dragon
Larger, efficient, powerful, organized; things run well
Aging Dynasty / Old Dragon
Lazy, law & order breaks down, weaker; society has problems
Natural Disasters Occur!
drought, famine, earthquake,
flood, war, barbarian attacks
1) The Right to Rule is granted by Heaven

2)There can be only ONE rightful Ruler

3)The Right to Rule is based on a ruler's performance

4)If the Mandate of Heaven is lost, the Heavens will pick a new Ruler through human events
The Mandate of Heaven's Purpose
1) Legitimizes the New/Current Dynasty
2) Places some limits of abuses of Rulers
3) Rulers encouraged to invest in Public Works
Jade Palace of The Heavens
Mandate of Heaven
can be compared to
Divine Right to Rule
Divine Right of Kings
Mandate of Heaven
is Lost

Specialized workers
Jade, Bronze, Stone,
bone, and ceramic
Artifacts of high skill
Shang Dynasty
1st dynasty (we know of)
Huang He River Valley only
Developed Civilization
Organized gov’t
Written language
Organized religion
Oracle Bones
Social Classes
Bronze Vessels from Shang Period
Rice Cultivation
Zhou Dynasty
Defeated the Shang Dynasty
Longest dynasty (over 900 years!!)
Mandate of Heaven to justify rule
Age of Philosophers
Much of Chinese culture develops.
Feudal relationships
B. 554 BCE d. 479 BCE
Kung Fu-tzu
Lived during time of chaos, lawlessness, & corruption- tried to fix Zhou society
Wanted to be in gov’t;
Could not get appointed
Became a teacher
Teachings collected by his students into the book the
Wanted to set up a perfect society
Filial Piety- Respect for Elders
Li - Ritual and Custom
Jen - Humaneness
Confucian Society
Value of Sons vs Daughters
Oldest son - Most important
Infanticide - female babies
In-Laws - Power over wives
Divorce - Possible but shameful
Concubines - Alternate "wives"

Daoism stresses respect for, and cooperation with NATURE

Simple, natural things are superior to man-made things.
Encouraged study of science & math
Daoism would have a major influence on Chinese art.
The Chinese found small feet to be a very attractive physical feature in a woman.
Wealthy Chinese women wrapped or bound, their feet, beginning at a young age, to keep them from getting big.
The result was a “lily foot” (because it resembled the flower’s shape). They were difficult to stand on and hurt to walk for any distance.
"A Jade stone is useless before it is processed; a man is good-for-nothing until he is educated."

Scholar (Gentry)
“Mean” People
Social Mobility? - Little
5 Relationships
Ruler to Subject
Husband to Wife
Father to Son
Older Brother to Younger Brother(s)
Friend to Friend
Peerage Ranks
Gong- Duke
Hou - Marquis
Bo - Count
Zi- Viscount
Nan - Baron
Ruled from cities not castles, hereditary,
based on military service, later on scholar/Confucian values
Land owned by nobles, worked by serfs
Most crowded section of China;
Contains the cities Shanghai & Hong Kong
23,000,000 and ~7,000,000 people respectively
Major Cities & Population Centers
Reliable Winds bring rains that nourish crops

The reliable winds called "Trade Winds" allowed regular trade ventures
Heavy rains brought by the monsoon winds can cause harmful floods

If the rains are not sufficient or come too late drought and famine can occur
1766 ~1050 B.C.E.
Shang Kingship was based on military control and also a Priestly role of worshiping the High God Di and the Royal Ancestors. This would be the beginning of the Mandate of Heaven
1046 BCE-256 BCE
Warring States and 100 Schools
403 BCE-221 BCE
Zhou still "ruled" but had little power
Feudal Lords and outsiders battled for power
Crisis and Turmoil led to new technologies and philosophical thought

Stresses Education
A means of
Ordering Society
and creating
Main Text The
Collected and written by followers
Stresses 5 Relationships to maintain
harmony and the duties between them
Aspects of Society
What is Daoism?
Said to have been conceived upon a falling star and born after 62 years in the womb
Said to be born with a full beard and long ears (signs of wisdom)
Founded during Zhou Dynasty by Laozi (Lao Tzu)
6th Century BCE
Daoism (also seen as Taosim) is China's first and only native religion
Tao Te Ching roughly translates to "The Way of Virtue and Power"
The Yin and Yang symbol is used to illustrate the natural harmony that exists in the world. Everything must have an opposing force that allows the harmonious universe to exist. For example:

Wu Wei
- Knowing when to act, and when not to act, without knowing it. The sun, stars, and planets move without knowing or acting to do so, a tree knows to grow without doing, this is an accepting of the natural and acting accordingly
"Going with the flow"
The goal of Taoism is to establish harmony with the Tao which is the mechanism of everything that exists
The Tao is "the way", "the path", and also Nature
Text: The Dao de Qing (or Tao Te Ching) is the main text of Daoism
Whereas Confucianism felt that government must rule for the people, Daoism stressed individuality and that rulers should rule wisely but otherwise leave the people alone
"Do not honor the worthy,
and the people will not compete.
Do not value treasure,
and the people will not steal.
Do not display what others want,
and the people will not know greed.
A Sage governs this way:
He empties peoples minds,
and fills their bellies.
He weakens their wills,
and strengthens their bones.
Keep the people without knowledge,
and without desires,
For then the clever will not dare act.
Engage in no action and order will prevail"
Laozi felt that man would be better if people knew less, gave up civilization, lost the desire or travel, war, and great things; It would be better if man found happiness in a simpler life and lost the envy of their peers
Traditional Garb of the Confucian Scholar
Philosophy set up by Han Feizi (during the Zhou Dynasty).
Believed humans were naturally evil.
Rulers must control people and teach them to behave via strict rules & harsh punishments.
Effective, but extremely unpopular.
Qin Emperor Shih Huang-di used this philosophy when ruling

Trade and Commerce
Silk Road established
East-West trade
Silk, lacquered goods in high demand

Government controlled production and sale of iron, salt, liquor grain

Buddhism introduced from India
Cultural diffusion
Missionaries (Sent by Asoka)
Spreads through China, Korea, Southeast Asia, & Japan
Buddhist Temples built
Transcend class differences
New outlook on life and death

Qin Dynasty
221-206 B.C.E.
Unifies China after the disorder of the
Warring States Period
The Shortest dynasty (15 years!)
Accomplished many amazing things is a short time:
Qin Shi Huang becomes the first Emperor
Great Works
Shi Huang Di
weights, measure, religious practices, and the written language
This would destroy many local traditions, but create a unified Chinese tradition
Trade would expand
due to standards of coins, weights and measures.

Grand Canal 605-609
Built large portions of the Great Wall of China to defend against nomadic "barbarians"
Great Wal
Large Public projects, worked by peasants as part of their "taxes". Often cost many lives but also benefited China as a whole
The Grand canal would eventually run North and South through most of China
Fostered trade, travel, urban development, and allowed for better flood control
Qin Shi Huang the Autocrat
Reestablished law & order after Warring States
Citizens forced to do labor
Citizens rewarded for spying on each other and punished severely
Set a Precedent for a strong central government and totalitarian rule
Legalism became the main ruling philosophy of the Emperor

control over subjects
Rejected Confucianism, supported
Burned any books other than agriculture, medicine, or divination
No criticism against the Emperor or government allowed
Historians and scholars killed
Qin Shi Huang Di's Tomb
Massive tomb complex built to house the resting site of the Emperor
Thousands of Terra Cotta warriors, horses, chariots were made to guard the Emperor in death
Han Dynasty

206 BCE - 220 CE
Duties of scholar-officials
collected/distributed taxes
judged cases
performed ceremonies
command troops
govern public works
control local education
Technological advances:
Sun dial
Wheel barrow
new planting methods (two crop, timed planting) Lined wells
Tribute status
sent gifts and hostages, did not war with china

China gave gifts of silk and other goods to
vassal states

China acknowledged as center of civilized world
Fights between court eunuchs, sons, and scheming led to weakness in government, lack of funds to pay officials, a locust swarm (153 CE) and floods led to rebellions and the fall of the Han
The heirs of the Qin empire were weak and succumbed to rebellion
Liu Bang (Gaozu)
, a minor official rose through rebellions to become a new King and later
Emperor of the Han Dynasty
The Han Dynasty restored Confucianism to government
Imperial academy founded to teach Confucian classics and train
Educated members of bureaucracy/government
(eventually would teach 30,000) at a time
Civil Service Exam

(Imperial Exam)

A test based on
Confucian classics
Education becomes a path to power
Creates a professional educated elite
Confucian Scholar-Official
The Han State
Han Economy and Society
Expanded the Empire,
built roads, and expanded canals
Chinese silk was highly valued the world over
It was even used as currency!
Tribute Mission to China
End of the Han
Court Eunuch
Sui Dynasty

Reunited China after a period of disorder
Low taxes in grain, labor, silk
Tried to keep land distributed evenly

589-618 CE
Ever-ready granaries
Allowed Dynasty to supply people with grain in hard times (famine/drought)

Wood-Block Printing leads to more books, writing, & learning
Many writers create poetry, philosophy, and histories if China
Li Bo, China’s most famous author, lives.

Tang Dynasty
618-907 CE
End of the Tang
Weakened b the An Lushan Rebellion (755-763)
Court comes under increasing control of eunuchs
Emperors unable to control bandits/rebellions
907-960 CE several states battle for control until the Song Dynasty conquers China
to increase trade and control floods
is a man-made waterway
Empress Wu
Ruled 660-705 CE
Started as a concubine
Became empress
Ruled through sons, deposed them
Forceful, suppressed rebellions

The Tang State
Continued low taxes in grain, silk, and levies
Created standard law code
Severity of penalties dependent on

Continued and expanded the Imperial Exam System
Unconnected people allowed to rise (
) - based on talent/ability not birth
Part of Golden Age
from trade = increase in culture
Foreign money and trade increases
trade expanded (silk road, grand canal)
new goods and ideas spread: stools and chairs

Expanded massively during early Tang
Chan school (later
Zen Buddhism)
= rejects sutras relies on masters to teach
Temples built, peasants leave land and obligations, loss of soldiers and tax revenue
841 persecution of Buddhism & foreign religions , forced 250,000 monks/nuns to return to lay life
4,600 monasteries and 40,000 chapels demolished or converted
reduced the influence and spread of Buddhism in China
Buddhism During the Tang Dynasty
Song Dynasty 907-1276 CE
Women's role expanded, upper classes educated,
Dowry inflation to attract better prospects
Women could have some control over dowry and could inherit
Female modesty increased
Footbinding becomes prevalent
Exam system and Confucianism Supreme
more schools built, exams and education the only way to reach the top
by dynasty's end as many at 400,000 took the exams each year! very competitive
1040 CE, first recipe for gunpowder found (used for grenades)
Song Dynasty not as strong as earlier dynasties (had to buy peace, did not control central Asia)
Population nearly doubled to over 100 million in a short time
Trade, commerce, increases
Growth of cities
Increasing use of currency
Creation of paper money
Invention of the magnetic compass(~1119) improves
maritime trade
and trade missions to parts of Asia over sea
Water-powered machines used in iron and other industry
Continues Golden Age
Women in the Song Dynasty
Yuan Dynasty


Marco Polo
Italian Merchant explores Asia and China
Meets with Kublai Khan
Writes about his journey, stimulating interest in Asia when he returns to Europe
Often compared to Ibn Battuta

A foreign and "alien" dynasty
Pax Mongolia - Mongolian Peace,
eventually Silk Road reopens and increases trade and contact east-west
Mongol lifestyle - Nomadic cavalry riders
to be more effective
Adopted weapons and techniques of conquered people
Genghis Khan (Temujin) 1162-1227 CE
Unites nomadic warrior groups
Conquers a vast empire, Korea, N. China, Mongolia, Central Asia, and Kievan Russ
Kubilai Khan, conquers the Song after years of brutal fighting
mongols and their allies become new elite, hereditary
end of civil exams until 1315 (and 50% of jobs went to mongols automatically)
Large population loss due to war and famine population at ~ 60 million
Chinese forbidden to meet in groups or own weapons
Ming Dynasty

Ming reinstated the
Tribute System
Sent huge Tribute expeditions by sea
The Ming Dynasty was founded by a peasant-turned-Emperor Taizu
-Taizu taxed the rich and eased the life of peasants
-Taizu also terrorized those who opposed him

International Maritime Trade
1498 Vasco da Gama (Portuguese explorer)
discovers all water route from Europe to Asia
trade increases
More profits for China
Ming exported Porcelain and silk
Imported silver from New World

The Ming
continued the civil service exam
-quotas developed similar to affirmative action and based on region
Began construction on the Forbidden City in Beijing

Ming China benefited from food from the
Columbian Exchange
(sweet potato, maize, peanuts, increase food production)

Emperor Taizu
The Voyages
27,000 men, 287 ships,
Traveled to India, Africa, and throughout S.E. Asia
Main job to find and enroll new nations in the
Tribute System
voyages discontinued when eunuchs and officials convinced emperors they were not cost-efficient
Huge and powerful ships superior to those built by Europeans at the time
2nd half of The Ming Dynasty coexisted with the
Age of Exploration
in Europe
Zheng He
Zheng He
A Muslim-born Eunuch serving the Ming Dynasty
Led a series of Sea Voyages from 1405-1433
Qing Dynasty
Foreign Dynasty – China conquered by Manchus from the North (Manchuria)
Warrior culture
Forced Manchu culture onto Han chinese
Foreign traders and Empires take a larger role
The Manchus would be the last Dynasty

Emperor Qianlong (1736-1795)
educated and hardworking
epitome of
filial piety
crushed any sign of anti-Manchu activity
large literature inquisition (2,000 books destroyed)

Dowager Empress Cixi
Ruled 1861-1908
Managed to hold on to power through several successive Emperors
China would increasingly come under control and
of Europeans and Japanese during her rule
Unwillingness to change led to the fall of the Dynasty
The Manchus conquered "modern china" we know as china today (N. & S. China, Taiwan (1683), Central Asia, Mongolia (through canons and guns), Tibet (1720)
Early martial success gave the Manchus a sense of power and invincibility

Manchu Warrior
The "Queue"
Chinese forced to shave the front of their heads and braid end of hair into a queue
This was a sign of Chinese submission to the Manchus
(chinese were given 10 days to shave/grow one or be executed

The Manchus were ruled by three good Emperors at first
Emperor Kangxi (1662-1722)
Mixed Manchus and Chinese scholars in government
Initially tolerated Jesuits and christians
intrigued by western mathematics, astronomy, and mechanical devices
Emperor Yongzheng (1722-1736)
reformed tax codes (allowed surplus)
freed slaves and hereditary service (serfs)

China 1700-1800s:
Manchus more concerned with themselves
Taxes increase
Rice Famine
Governmental corruption
See all nations as tribute nations

England 1700-1800s:
Industrial Revolution modernizes economy
Need natural resources & markets
Develop more modern weapons
Look for colonies

Europe industrializes, modernizes, & passes China
Change in attitude - Imperialism, mercantilism
Kowtow- refuse to act subservient
Europeans no longer satisfied with
Canton System
Britain discovers value of
Opium Trade
In place since ~17th Century
Europeans only allowed to trade in Guangzhou
Had to live in specific sections of city only (walled in)
Only trade four months per year
Only sell to Chinese merchants
Forbidden to learn Chinese language
Must hire Chinese clerks
Paid heavy taxes
European Imperialism
Desire for trade goods from the East lead to a European voyages of exploration
Exploration and warfare lead to leaps in military and naval technology in Europe
Growing Industrialization necessitated New Markets for European Goods
Europeans desired a
favorable balance of trade
Organized by Britain
to create
normal trade relations and diplomatic relations
with China
Embassy's refusal to "kowtow"
China's View
- All nations are tribute nations and beneath China (others are "barbarians")
Qing Emperor to King George III
"Tremblingly obey and show no negligence"
Britain's View
- All nations are equal in status and should have equal relations

Canton System
Maccartney Trade Mission, 1792
Changes Lead to Trouble
addictive opiate
Legal in many nations at the time
All levels of society would become addicted
Opium dens
China loses money & productivity
Disease, sickness

Chinese Tea Trade
European Silver
Trade Goods going to Europe
Silver flowing to China
Unfavorable balance of trade
(Europeans had to pay in silver)
Europeans and British NOT satisfied

Opium and the Opium War
Trade Goods going to Europe
Silver flowing from China
Opium from India
Opium to China
New Trade Balance
Opium pours into China
Think the British were Happy?
In 1838 the Qing Emperor appointed a
special commissioner Lin Zexu
to combat the Opium Problem

Lin Zexu surrounded the foreign quarter and demanded Merchants hand over the Opium

Lin Zexu and his soldiers destroyed all of the opium and sent a letter to the Queen of England forbidding future Opium Trade
"We find that your country [Britain] is sixty or seventy thousand li from China. Yet there are barbarian ships [British Ships] that strive to come here for trade for the purpose of making a great profit. The wealth of China is used to profit the barbarians. That is to say, the great profit made by barbarians is all taken from the rightful share of China. By what right do they then in return use the poisonous drug to injure the Chinese people? Even though the barbarians may not necessarily intend to do us harm, yet in coveting profit to an extreme, they have no regard for injuring others. Let us ask, where is your conscience?"

—Lin Zexu, Open letter addressed to the sovereign of England and published in Canton (1839)
Lin Zexu's Response to Great Britain
The First Opium War 1839-1842
and Dynasty's End
Chinese Response
Composed of trained troops with the latest weapons, cannons, and the deadly steam-powered warship
the British won easily
British merchants and the Government were outraged by Lin Zexu's actions
The British also saw this as an opportunity to force equal relations on the Qing Dynasty
Britain declared War and sent a naval and army force to China
Conversely, China's army was a mix of older rifles, poor cannons, outdated ships, archers, swords, and poorly trained and drilled troops
HMS Nemesis, built in 1839 was the pinnacle of naval technology at the time. It was steam-powered, iron-hulled, heavily gunned, and unstoppable by Chinese weapons.
The Treaty of Nanking 1842
Unable to stop the British Advance the Qing Dynasty was forced to sign the Treaty of Nanking, the first of the
Unequal Treaties
forced upon China

Called the
unequal treaties
because they were forced on China after wars and because Western nations did not have to reciprocate.
China forced to acknowledge Britain as an equal
Canton System abolished
Treaty Ports for trade established
China was forced to pay
of $21 Million for the destroyed opium and to pay for Britain's cost of the war
British subjects in China were subject to

Subject to British Law and officials even on Chinese soil
The island of Hong Kong was taken as a colony by Britain
Provisions of the Treaty of Nanking
Unequal Treaties
and Spheres of Influence
More Unequal Treaties
Sensing weakness, other European Nations and even eventually Japan forced treaties similar to Nanking on China, offering them
Treaty Ports
, and
What nations do you see depicted here?
Treaty Ports in China
Great Britain
Would all force treaties on
China and other would try

Spheres of Influence
China found itself carved into
"Spheres of Influence"
controlled by Western nations and Japan.
The Open Door Policy 1898
Late 1800s the US became interested in trade with Asia.
Spheres of Influence
system shut out the US from trade with China.
U.S. Secretary of State John Hay proposes the
“Open Door” Policy
Allows any nation to trade anywhere in China.
Helps U.S. more than anyone

Rebellions and the End of the Qing
Secret societies
The Righteous & Harmonious Order of Fists
Resent the European foreigners in China and the Hated Chinese who have converted to Christianity
Hated missionaries
Disliked being under Manchu rule

Taiping Rebellion 1850-1864
Boxer Rebellion 1897-1901

600 cities destroyed Over 20 million killed!
The Taiping opposed corruption of the Manchu government
Supported by the peasants in Southern China.

Begun by Hong Xiuquan,
converted to Christianity
created a new government in
society based on Hong's teachings from a Chinese Bible
(considered heretical by European missionaries)
Taiping means:
"Heavenly Kingdom and Great Peace"
The Taiping Rebels...
Destroyed ancestral temples
Killed all Manchus, even women and children
Manchus barely able to put the Taiping Rebellion down, required help from European foreign troops
Who were the "Boxers?'
The Boxers executed Chinese Christians and missionaries when they encountered them
These Chinese converts are known as
The Dowager Empress Cixi eventually supported the Boxers, hoping they would drive Europeans out of China
The Boxers and parts of the Qing Army surrounded and attacked the foreign legation section of Beijing (Peking)
An alliance of 8 Imperialist nations sent 20,000 soldiers and many ships to end the Rebellion and end the siege
Great Britain
Members of the 8-Nation Alliance
China Humiliated
Boxers were executed
The Imperial City was looted by Westerners and Japan
China forced to pay reparations of 450 million oz of silver (2x what the nation made each year!!!)

Phase 1 1901-1911: Ending Dynasties & Setting up a Republic under Sun Yatsen
Phase 2 1912-1928: Challenge to Democracy (Warlords Era)
Phase 3 1928-1945: 2nd Republic Under Chiang Kaishek (Jiang Jieshi)
Phase 4 1945-1949: Chiang v. Mao (Nationalists v. Communists)

Chinese Revolution(s)
1st President of the Republic of China
Founds a political party called the Kuomintang (KMT) or Guomindang (GMD)
3 Principles of the People:
Livelihood (jobs)
In 1911 Overthrows the Manchus
Chinese Nationalist - he wanted to free China of foreign control and strengthen China
Sun Yat-sen(Sun Yixian)
General who wants to be next Emperor and create new Dynasty
Controlled the military, dictator
Forces Sun Yat-sen to name him as leader
Dies before he can establish his family as next dynasty.

Yuan Shih-kai
Leader of
Problems he faced:
Arrangement with the Communists
-Together unify China in 1928
Chiang Kaishek / Jiang Jieshi
Warlordism/Warlord Period
Period of time when different generals carved territories (mini-kingdoms) out of China

Both the
and the
would combat warlords
Remembered as a "Father of the Nation"
Sun Yat-sen is
revered by
both the
Republic of China (Taiwan)
and the
communist People's Republic of China

1934 Chiang Kaishek sends his army to South China with orders to kill all the Communists
CCP flees to avoid
90,000 begin, only 7,000 survive!
Ends in caves of Yenan
Mao becomes leader of CCP.
Communists who survive are dedicated to defeating Chiang

The Long March
Style of fighting developed by Mao to fight larger, better equipped Nationalist army.
Quick hit and run attacks.
Harass the enemy until strong enough to challenge in a major battle.
Later adopted by others (Ho Chi Minh, PLO, Algeria)
Guerrilla Warfare
1933 – Japan invades & takes Manchuria for its coal
Chiang’s army distracted from fighting Mao.
1937 – Japan invades rest of China
Chiang & Mao unite to fight foreigners
(Japan), but still hate each other.

Second Sino-Japanese War 1937-1945

Japanese excessively brutal to the Chinese
Hatred between China & Japan is increased.
Allied support to China increases.

Rape of Nanjing
"The sky cannot have two suns."
1927-1930 "White Terror" (communists hunted down and executed"

"If you find it hard, think of the Long March; if you feel tired, think of our revolutionary forbears. The message has been drilled into us so that we can accomplish any goal set before us by the party because nothing compares in difficulty with what they did. Decades after the historical one, we have been spurred on to ever more Long Marches – to industrialize China, to feed the largest population in the world, to catch up with the West, to reform the socialist economy, to send men into space, to engage with the 21st century." - Sun Shuyun
Mao and the Communists won the support of the peasants as they traveled through China

The Long March as Propaganda
Japan Siege of Nanjing ends in the brutal genocide of over 240,000 civilians in the ancient capitol of Nanjing. To this day the Japanese Government denies this war crime
Nationalists v. Communists1945 - 1949
After Japan is defeated, Chiang & Mao go back at it.
Chiang has US support since he’s fighting Communists (Cold War).
Communists in USSR don’t support Mao (he’ll never forgive them)

Nationalist government corrupt & favored the wealthy & cities
CCP favored peasants and treated them fairly.
Peasants (80-90% of pop.) support Mao & CCP. Mao has massive army
Chiang & Nationalists driven to island of Taiwan.

Communist Victory Oct. 1949
People’s Republic of China
Ruled by Mao & CCP
Mainland China (“Red” China)
Ignored by U.S.
Not recognized by U.N. until 1970s

Republic of China
Ruled by Chiang & Nationalist Party
Supported by U.S.
Kept in the United Nations

The 2 Chinas

Head of the Communist Party
Leader of the government
(not always head of government)
Had complete power

1950 Marriage Law
Women given legal equality to men
Arranged Marriages & concubines made illegal
Women could divorce
Women could own property
Infanticide & footbinding were outlawed

Mao and the Communists promised Land Reform to the Peasants
Communities where all workers share everything
Government run
Worked and ate communally
Private property and
were frowned upon
Farm & Factory workers affected
Not optional
What do you think were peasants reaction?

Mao encourages ideas from the Chinese people
“Let a hundred flowers bloom, let a hundred schools of thought contend.”
Expects praise, he gets criticisms

The Hundred Flowers Program ( 1956)
Mao’s Early Programs
Chairman Mao Zedong
“Revolution is not a dinner party.” - Mao
Millions killed and jailed.
"Destroy the Old" became a theme and workers and Red Guards
destroyed countless temples, statues, and works of art and history
Chinese army requires service (
) of men & women.

Largest army on the world.
Able to battle the U.S. and U.N. to a stalemate in the Korean War (1953), land skirmish with India (1962), and invaded Vietnam (1979)
President Nixon Visits China (1972)
Formerly ends the
Cultural Revolution
Many Chinese upset over his death
No successor in line to take over
Richard Nixon is the 1st US President to travel to China.
Worldwide attention.
Major change in US policy
A "cooling off' during the cold war
U.S. Recognizes PRC

Stance on Women
"enticed the snakes out of their caves."
-Mao Zedong
Agricultural Reform
Reaction to Hundred Flowers negativity
Those who criticized Mao, intellectuals, teachers, legal professionals, and those with western educations were accused and over 300,000 imprisoned within a year.
Made people reluctant to criticize Mao in the future

Anti-Rightist Campaign (1956)
Public Criticisms
and sentencing to
Labor/ Reeducation Camps
was common
Most convictions were overturned in 1979 by Deng Xiaoping
The Great Leap Forward
collectivization in the Soviet Union
chinese communes
often resulted in


and shortages of consumer goods.

The Great Leap Forward was Mao’s plan to
modernize China very quickly.
Plans to have China surpass the US in technology & production.
Mao brags about how China will leap past the Soviet Union and the U.S.

The Great Leap Forward was a
miserable failure.
Production drops.
Floods &
hit – from 1958-60,
Between 18 and 30 million starve to death!
Plan abandoned in 1961
A big embarrassment for Mao

“The commune is like a gigantic dragon, production is visibly awe-inspiring” 1959

(work collectives) of up to 300 families were set up on farms & in factories.
Ownership of property was outlawed
The State owned all land and factories
Peoples Communes
Steel Production
Mao considered steel production to be necessary for growth
Backyard smelters/forges were created in Communes
Peasant were expected to produce high quality steel
Public Works
Many peasants were forced to work on large irrigation or building projects
This was time they were not spending on growing crops
Many of the projects were poorly planned and had no experts
Many peasant died due to the hard work, exhaustion, and malnourishment
were given grain quotas (amounts of food) they had to give the the State
These numbers and harvests were exaggerated by Communist Party members
As a result too much grain was taken and mass starvation set in
Government Quotas
The Communist Party of China (CPC) used posters and slogans to convince peasants and workers to work hard during the Great Leap Forward and other movements.
This is an example of using
Communicating to influence people by presenting only one side of an argument of overly optimistic view
Many of the posters used remain with us today
The "Vision" of a Happy Commune
The Propaganda of Backyard Steel meets the Reality
Posters like these were meant to show how much more food was produced during the Great Leap Forward
What do the figures in this poster represent?
The Great Cultural Revolution (1966-1976)
Hint- It wasn't so great
After the
failure of the Great Leap
forward Mao resigned as State Chairman and was heavily criticized by other Communist officials
Mao was slowly driven out of power in the CPC
Goals: To re-ignite the revolutionary spirit in China and to eliminate opposition to Chairman Mao.

The Red Guard eventually fought each other
Mao had to call upon the People's Army to stop them
The remaining Red Guard were sent into the countryside to work alongside peasants
Economy disrupted.
Negative growth for several years
Chaos in China.
An entire generation with little schooling

The Red Guards
Teens and young adults formed into groups of
Red Guards
to continue the Revolution
The Red Guards were
fanatically loyal
to Mao and Mao increasingly developed a
Cult of Personality
The Red Guard would attack anyone suspected of criticizing Mao or being of the wrong "class"
Mao used criticisms to
members of the Party who had questionable loyalty
Anyone in power became a target
Teachers, the educated, and experts were removed from their positions and persecuted (
Criticisms or "Struggled"
), jailed, beaten by crowds, executed, or sent to farm the countryside.
Schools & colleges closed for years.
Social and Economic Effects
Mao's Little Red Book was a symbol of Mao's Cult of Personality and loyalty to him.
Mao and the Military
Nuclear Power
: In 1964 China successfully tests its first
atomic bomb
. June 14, 1967 - China tests first hydrogen bomb
Mao made China a world power again
China's progress on nuclear armaments was incredibly quick.
Currently sells weapons to other nations

Mao and Detente
Mao's Death (1976)
Power struggle
between moderates and
"Gang of Four"
Gang of Four (including Mao's wife Jiang Qing) were b
lamed for the worst of the Cultural Revolution and imprisoned/executed
By 1980 Deng Xiaoping has emerged as leader

Incentive System (work harder = more $)
Capitalism introduced
Rewards for higher production (over quota)
Private ownership
Special Economic Zones (SEZ's)
Extremely popular
Do these seem like changes Mao would have approved of?

Deng Xiaoping
Tiananmen Square Protests 1989

April 1989 -
Chinese students march in Tiananmen Square
mourning death of Hu Yaobang, who supported democracy in China.
Students call for free speech, free press, & free elections.
In May 1989 Russian leader Mikhail Gorbachev scheduled to meet with Deng Xiaoping world press gathers to cover the meeting.
3,000 students on hunger strike in Tiananmen
Square steals attention & embarrasses Deng.
US & world support for students.

Troops sent in to remove students from Tiananmen Square
Students block the troops
Troops retreat!
June 3-4, 1989
Students have protested for 7 weeks!
At 2:00 am on June 3, Deng orders:
0,000 soldiers attack from all sides; tanks are used in the attack
By dawn, none left alive in the Square.
World Horrified
Three Gorges Dam (2012)
On Chang River
World’s largest dam.
Completed in 2008-2012

Hydroelectric dam
– will produce a tremendous amount of free, clean energy
Gives electricity to millions who did not have it before.
Reduces flooding along the river
Increase the shipping capacity of the Chang River

On June 30, 1997 after 155 years of British rule, Hong Kong was peacefully returned to China.
China, now a world power, was able to force Britain to return the area or face a Chinese invasion.
England did insist on detailed assurances on the future of Hong Kong, with China guaranteeing the continuation of the territory's capitalist economy and lifestyle for 50 years after 1997

Today Hong Kong is one of the largest and richest cities in the world
A Special Administrative District Hong Kong has open elections, personal freedom, a capitalistic economy, and open internet.

Hong Kong Returned (1997)
Chinese Leaders after Deng
Required 1.2 million people to be moved from their homes
Flooded 13 cities, 140 towns, 1,350 villages (including archeological sites)
May endanger some river wildlife
Increased risk of landslides

A measure to control China's population
Limits couples to only one child
No state school/healthcare for 2nd child
possible loss of parents job

Has led to
female infanticide
forced abortions (2012 ex.)
Has slowed population growth

Effective head of China 1980-1987
Survivor of the
Long March
Had been
by Mao several power
Four Modernizations
Deng Xiaoping's plan to
modernize the economy
and China after the harm from the Cultural Revolution
Called for
rejuvenation of China's economy
through advances in:

and Science &Technology
Economic Reforms
"It doesn't matter whether it's a white cat or a black, I think; a cat that catches mice is a good cat."- Deng Xiaoping (1962)
One Child Policy
Violence against Protesters
A mixed legacy for Deng Xiaoping
Illegal/impossible to search or learn about the Tiananmen Square protest in China (Great Firewall of China)
Still several thousand missing presumed dead/imprisoned
Nearly Extinct river dolphin
These carved stone stairs and many other sites were destroyed by the reservoir
Sino-Soviet Split
Relations between Communist China and Soviet Russia soured due to ideological differences.
For many years these nations had more troops on their mutual borders than arrayed against the West.
This break between communists allowed a warming of relations between China and the US
Pre-Split Poster showing Chinese and Russians working side-by-side
Chinese Poster illustrating their desire to protect their border against the Soviets
Actual fighting did break out in limited form in 1969, including this brawl between Soviet and Chinese patrols
China's Economy
35% of business activity is state-run and 43% of profits are state owned companies
Development favors the Eastern Coast and Southeast
Some nations accuse China of
artificially devaluing their currency
(Renminbi/Yuan)to compete better
Jiang Zemin oversaw the peaceful return of Hong Kong
China, under Jiang, saw vast economic growth

Hu Jinato has been more conservative in reforms
Less outgoing & charismatic than past leaders

Xi Jinping is the newest President of China elected 2013
Not much is known of him or his views
China is a member of BRICS
(Brazil Russia, India, China, & South Africa) a powerful economic group
Huge potential markets (foreign and domestic)
Massive Populations
Developing infrastructure
1/3 of the World’s Pop
$13.6 Trillion GDP

China is the second largest economy in the world after the US
China is the
largest Exporter in the world
China has experienced a growth rate of 10% or more for over 30 years
China owns roughly 20% of US debt
795 million labor force
$457 average monthly salary
Pollution/Environmental Issues
China has
few environmental regulations
on Industry
This has led to
environmental degradation
and pollution
Air Pollution
Industry, coal-fueled power plants, and increasing automobile use has led to critically high air pollution rates
The air Pollution in Beijing has literally been
"off the charts"
, exceeding the measurement capabilities of the US embassy there.
Cancer, asthma, and cardiovascular disease rates s increased
The PRC government frequently denies the severity of the problem
Water Pollution
The same lack of regulation and environmental laws have led to water pollution in China
Drinking water, fishing industry, and recreation are all effected.
In the last several years water pollution has led to fish kills, wildlife kills
March 2013, 13,000 dead/diseased pigs found in rivers
September 2013 huge fish kills
Territorial Disputes
In the 21st Century China has increasingly pressed
territorial claims
, leading to high tension and protests with neighboring nations
Protests and dissent over Chinese claims in Vietnam, the Philippines, Tibet, Thailand, Russia, India, and Japan have made the Pacific increasingly contentious
The 2013 Chinese Passport include territory claimed by China but owned by several other nations
China claims oil, gas, fishing, and resource rights to the majority of the South China Sea, including water that should be under international control
China has i
ncreased spending on it's Military
, including buying and refurbishing a soviet-era aircraft carrier and launching it as the
first Chinese Aircraft Carrier
. 2 more carriers are planned.
Neighboring nations have also increased military spending out of fear of China
Extreme Makeover
Corruption, Income Inequality, and the Police State
China remains a
Totalitarian State
The Chinese government has Total control over it's citizens
Small group Politburo Committee rules and elected once every 10 years
The Great Firewall of China
The Government has
total control over the internet

It is impossible to look up the Tiananmen Square Incident, official corruption, or government wrongdoing

Sina Weibo, a twitter/FB App is also monitored and terms and searches blocked

If you look/search/talk about the wrong thing police might show up at your door.
Government corruption is thought to be wide-spread in China
Party-members and officials, and their families are often very wealthy and have the best jobs and schooling
Bribery, graft, land seizure, and other crimes are common
The families of Party Members are usually set for life.
International Corruption Index
Police State

Members of the village of Wukan protested land seizure by local party members, stormed the party HQ and drove officials out. The elected "negotiator" who went to speak with officials died mysteriously when he met with them and no autopsy was allowed.
In the end the Wukan protests were mostly successful.
Other protests and movements are not as lucky
Since 2010 China has spent more on its internal security (police, government agents) than on the military (=$111 Billion/year)

Despite this, protests of government abuse, corruption, lack of rights, and policy has increased
8,700 incidents in 1993
There were 90,000 "incidents" in 2010
The dreaded "Segway Assault!"
, such as artist Ai Weiwei are bullied, beaten, jailed, kept under house arrest, fined, and their families monitored and beaten to keep them in line.
are those that disagree with a government or policy
Due to pressures on Family Planning members not to exceed the 1-Child Policy some officials force women to undergo abortions or sterilization
Chen Guangcheng, a lawyer who fought for such women, was placed under arrest and escaped to America in 2012
Forced Abortions
In 2012, 22 year old Feng Jianmei was kidnapped, hit repeatedly, and forced to miscarry while 7 months pregnant
A sympathetic nurse took this picture moments after the procedure and it sparked outrage on CHinese social media
Warning: Graphic Content
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