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When and How does nationalism become UltraNationalism?
Transcript of When and How does nationalism become UltraNationalism?
What what is required to become labeled an Ultranationalistic nation? Its hard to say. It depends on the actions and circumstances of the nation in question, and there are varying degrees of Ultranationalism.
Lets look at some examples in History...
Ultranationalism of Hitler
Gets complete Control
When Hitler became the leader of Germany in 1933, the first thing he did was get rid of the parliament, giving himself sole control over all of Germany. As a dictatorship there was no one in Germany that had the power to stop or get rid of Hitler.
Prop. and Indoc.
Hitler got a lot of his power through propaganda and indoctrinating children. Propaganda is manipulating the media and sending out views that are very biased. The whole point of propaganda is to twist someone else's views to match your own. Indoctrinating is to teach a set of beliefs uncritically. Hitler used the school system and children's books to teach the children of Germany that they were a better race than everyone else and that they needed to restore the 'proper' race back to its superiority. This sense of superiority would lead to huge negative effects of thousands of lives, racism, death, and violence.
The Power of Words
Hitler also had an incredible talent for public speaking. He could convert thousands at a time with just his words, and by the end of a speech or rally he would have the crowds singing, cheering, screaming, and chanting: "Today Germany, tomorrow the World!"
He did anything he could to preserve his views and his words. He held cerimonies where he burned works of art, music, books, plays, the works of scientists, anything that conflicted with what he taught in any way was burned while people stood by performing the Nazi salute. The reasoning for these actions was completely illogical. Some of the works included were from Einstein, a political theorist named Karl Marx, and many others. They lost many great ideas and knowledge in this era.
One should never underestimate the power of just plain fear. Hitler spread it through Germany using propaganda, his speeches and through force. When someone tried to go against him they would often be tried in public, ridiculed, and killed. On many occasions people just disappeared and were never heard from again. It it was all done to preserve the German Spirit.
What are some Qualities of Ultranationalism.
Some of the qualities that have been present in ultranationalistic nations and actions are:
the reasoning behind it is irrational
widespread negative effects
negative effects on other`s interests.
Ultranationalism of Hirohito
Say `No` to Democracy
Leading up to WWII the ultranationalists of Japan were working hard to get rid of democracy and make Japan a military ruled nation. The emperor didn`t really do much in the actual governing of Japan, he was worshiped as a god in human form called a Arahitogami. He was sort of like the Queen is for Canada. So, before WWII the military General, Tojo Hideki, was doing most of the ruling and calling all of the shots. By he time the 2nd World War actually started Japan was mostly a military ruled dictatorship.
Bringing Back Their Past
The military leaders of Japan thought it would be a good idea to bring back the old culture of their past, and that had a lot of stuff like; the emperor being a God, the spirits of warriors protected them, the Japanese had a divine mission to expand its borders and that duty and obedience were the highest of virtues. They also indoctrinated their children to idealize the past of Japan, worship the Emperor, believe that they were the superior race and that if they were called into the military that it was the highest of honors. Anything of the western culture was scorned. These children grew up to fight in WWII and with the idea that they were the better race did a lot of harm to many people and nations.
Actions of Japan
With their new-found superiority, the Japanese soldiers did some pretty bad things.
In one instance they invaded China, for their raw materials. But not only did they just infringe on their borders, they destroyed cities, raped and killed women and children, and left many people homeless and alone, in desperate need of care and safety. They didn't think of the people that they were attacking as people. To the Japanese soldiers they were just scum and needed to be obliterated. But when it became clear that they were losing the war, the Japanese were ashamed. They had failed in their divine mission. In response to their failure pilots began flying into enemy ships, in suicide missions. They actually had ceremonies before they took off, where they received sacred headbands.
The Poisonous Mushroom
Intern Camps In Canada
When I mention things like; discrimination, relocation camps or prisoner of war, do you think of Canada? Well, sorry to break it to you, but Canada has done things like that...
Pre-World War Two
In WWI the German and Italians were portrayed as enemies, but even the Japanese Canadians were discriminated. In B.C., where many Japanese people had settled, they weren't allowed to vote or become Lawyers, police or pharmacists. The Japanese people tried to go before the parliament of Canada, but were quickly shut down, with comments like: "The whole affair is to enable the Japanese government to plant spies in Canada" and "It would lead to Japanese Canadians taking over Canada." But things only got worse during WWII...
When the Japanese attacked Pearl Harbor and Hong Kong, things got pretty bad for the Canadian citizens of Japaneze decent. In 1942 all of the Japanese Canadians within 160km from the Pacific Coast were rounded up and put into Internment camps, and all of their belongings and homes were sold at auctions. They were forced to still abide by the laws of B.C., despite being moved to other provinces. They still could not vote.
At the End...
When the war ended people began to rally in the favor of the Japanese Canadians, and they received their voting, and employment rights. But Canada had broken its reputation for being a equal country, and even commited an act of Ultranationalism. They had been racist, had altered thousands of lives for the worst and their reasoning behind it was unreasonable. So in the scheme of things in WWII we weren't much better than Hitler.
Compulsory military service, was very common in WWI, not only the dictatorships had it, Canada also took part in it. The Francophone community strongly resented it, as most of the were farmers and needed to take care of their farms. And thus, the nation was divided. But despite knowing that they would face much opposition in their nation, the government of Canada set up Conscription again when WWII came along.
Was it Ultranationalism?
Was making the men of their country fight to defend it, the act of an ultranationalistic country? It was against the views of some, but for the views of others. It did cause death and some violence, but so did not sending in troops. The reason behind it made sense; not enough men were volunteering to be able to defend their country.
So was conscription an act of ultranationalism? I think it wasn't. We needed to troops and not enough were signing up. Desperate times call for desperate measures. Not sending them it could have been disastrous for Canada.
Google, Youtube, Exploring Nationalism Textbook
Google, Youtube, Exploring Nationalism Textbook
How doe nationalism become Ultranationalism? Again, its hard to say, but I believe that the reasoning behind it is the big part. The minute the reason for the action is unreasonable, it turns to Ultranationalism. The other parts help, but I believe that reasoning is the biggest part of it.