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Theory of Architecture

An overview of the basic elements, systems and orders that constitute a work of architecture. (D.K. Ching)
by

Liza Macalandag

on 26 January 2012

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Transcript of Theory of Architecture

Architectural Systems
The
Architecture
of
Space
Structure
Enclosure
Movement in
Space-Time
Experienced through
Technology
Achieved by means of
Program
Accommodating a
Context
Compatible with its
organizational pattern, relationships, clarity, hierarchy
formal image and spatial definition
qualities of shape, color, texture, scale, proportion
qualities of surfaces, edges, and openings
approach and entry
path configuration and access
sequence of spaces
light, view, touch, hearing and smell
structure and enclosure
environmental protection and comfort
health, safety, and welfare
durability and sustainability
use requirements, needs, aspirations
sociocultural factors
economic factors
legal constraints
historical tradition and precedents
site and environment
climateL sun, wind, temperature, precipitation
geography: soils, topography, vegetation, water
sensory and cultural characteristics of the place
Physical
... & Orders
Form and Space
solids and voids
interior and exterior
Perceptual
Sensory perception & recognition of the physical elements by experiencing them sequentially in time
Conceptual
Comprehension of the ordered or disordered relationships among a building's elements and systems, and responding to the meanings they evoke
Systems and organizations of
space
structure
enclosure
machines
approach and departure
entry and egress
movement through the order of space
functioning of and activities within spaces
qualities of light, color, texture, view and sound
images
patterns
signs
symbols


context
TECHNICS*
FUNCTION
FORM
SPACE
Source:
Architecture: Form, Space and Order
by Francis D.K. Ching
Architectural order
is created when the
organization of parts makes visible their relationships to each other and the structure as a whole
. When these relationships are perceived as
mutually reinforcing
and contributing to the singular nature of the whole, then a
conceptual order
exists - an order that may well be more enduring than transient
perceptual visions
.
Acropolis
Athen, Greece
science & art of designing
buildings and other physical
structures
architecture
Site
Program
Form & Space
Site
Climate
Buildings
Solution
Elements
Principles
Functions
Users
Clients
Concept
Shape
Topography
Roads
View
Temperature
Sun
Wind
Humidity
Height
Forms
Colors
Sketches
Drawings
Details
Texture
Color
Scale
Size
Volumes
Shapes
Variety
Balance
Symmetry
Assymetry
Proportion
Unity
Rhythm
Spaces
Areas
Relations
Gender
Social
Culture
Vision
Budget
Schedule
Idea
Analogy
Metaphor
Architecture
Architectural theory is the act of thinking, discussing, or most importantly writing about architecture. Architectural theory is often didactic, and theorists tend to stay close to or work from within schools. (Wikipedia, 2012)
Theory
of Design
The form a building takes
Theory of Structure
The way its members are assembled
Theory of Design Method
The procedure followed to arrive at the design
Construction
The process of actualizing the phyiscal properties
A theory of architecture resides in any notion of what a building ought to be like.
Architecture (Latin architectura, from the Greek ρχιτέκτων – arkhitekton, from ρχι- "chief" and τέκτων "builder, carpenter") can mean:
The art and science of designing and erecting buildings and other physical structures.
The practice of an architect, where architecture means to offer or render professional services in connection with the design and construction of a building, or group of buildings and the space within the site surrounding the buildings, that have as their principal purpose human occupancy or use.
A general term to describe buildings and other structures.
A style and method of design and construction of buildings and other physical structures.
"General Practice of Architecture" means the act of planning and architectural designing, structural conceptualization, specifying, supervising and giving general administration and responsible direction to the erection, enlargement or alterations of buildings and building environments and architectural design in engineering structures or any part thereof; the scientific, aesthetic and orderly coordination of all the processes which enter into the production of a complete building or structure performed through the medium of unbiased preliminary studies of plans, consultations, specifications, conferences, evaluations, investigations, contract documents and oral advice and directions regardless of whether the persons engaged in such practice are residents of the Philippines or have their principal office or place of business in this country or another territory, and regardless of whether such persons are performing one or all these duties, or whether such duties are performed in person or as the directing head of an office or organization performing them;
1
2
What is Design?
“Design is that area of human experience, skill and knowledge which is concerned with man’s ability to mold his environment to suit his material and spiritual needs.” (Archer, 1973)
"The conscious effort to impose meaningful order"
“Design is essentially a rational, logical, sequential process intended to solve problems.”
"A process of purposeful creation"
"Arrangement of parts in a unified scheme willful to fill practical needs"
Design

vs

Art
While an artist may express his personal visions and dreams unconstrained by the requirements of use, the designer always works within the constraints of purpose.
Design

as a Process
The Rational Model - independently developed by Herb Simon (Newell and Simon 1972; Simon 1969) and Pahl and Beitz (Pahl and Beitz 1996), states that:
Designers attempt to optimize a design candidate for known constraints and objectives,
The design process is plan-driven,
The design process is understood in terms of a discrete sequence of stages.
According to the rationalist philosophy, design is informed by research and knowledge in a predictable and controlled manner. Technical rationality is at the center of the process. (Kirkeby, 2011)
According to the rationalist philosophy, design is informed by research and knowledge in a predictable and controlled manner. Technical rationality is at the center of the process. (Kirkeby, 2011)
Any well-designed product has to be appealing in appearance, in addition to meeting its functional requirements.
Design

and Human Needs
4
What is Architecture?
Architecture can be defined as durability (firmitas), utility (utilitas) and beauty (venustas) at the right time and at the right cost.
(other: firmness, commodity, delight)
Marcus Vitruvius Pollio
(De architectura or On Architecture)
Architecture is the masterly, correct and the magnificent play of masses brought together in light.
Le Corbusier
Architecture is a discipline, a profession and a state of mind.
Architecture is a cultural index that takes different forms in different civilizations and political settings.
Anthony Antoniades (Poetics of Architecture)
Architecture is created in a field of tension between reason, emotion and intuition.
Ashraf Salama
(World Architecture for Equal Dignity)
"Architecture" is the art, science or profession of planning, designing and constructing buildings in their totality taking into account their environment, in accordance with the principles of utility, strength and beauty;
RA 9266
Traditionally building ideas relate to spiritual values and concepts and materials are natural and dependent upon the architect's ingenuity to mold locally available materials into shapes, surfaces and fittings.
Traditional architecture symbolizes creation. Numbers, shapes, location all have significance in traditional design.
Function follows Form was the traditional dictum.
Modern architecture ideas more in the worlds of the physical and the mental being. The roots of modern architecture concentrated on the physical aspect of humanity and a pragmatic vision for architecture.
By removing decoration, extra space, complex detailing modern design made buildings cheaper but many argue it has also made buildings lose spiritual content and contact.
Form follows Function was the modern dictum.
Modern
Traditional
Theory , which deals with that which is permanent and always valid , notably the rules of art and laws of statics
Practice, which seeks to adapt these eternal laws to the variable conditions of time and space
Practice
Theory
Eugène Emmanuel Viollet-le-Duc sees Architecture from two different aspects:
The practice of architecture is a multi-disciplinary profession integrating the skills of mathematics, science, art, technology, social sciences, politics, history, geography and philosophy.

It is the philosophy of the practice that defines the rationale by which they produce particular solutions to definitive problems. Rationalism, empiricism, structuralism, post-modernism, de-constructivism structuralism and phenomenology are some directions from philosophy influencing architecture.
“All Pictorial form begins with the point that sets itself in motion … The point moves … and the line comes into being—the first dimension. If the line shifts to form a plane, we obtain a two-dimensional element. In the movement from plane to spaces, the clash of planes gives rise to body (three-dimensional) … A summary of the kinetic energies which move the point into a line, the line into a plane, and the plane into a spatial dimension”. Paul Klee. The Thinking Eye: The Notebooks of Paul Klee. 1961
5
Form and space are the vocabulary of architecture and the built environment. Understanding the vocabulary of the architectural profession is important.
Architecture Theories
Architecture & Modernism
Villa Savoye
Why study Theory?
To aid the work of the architect and improve its product
“Skill without knowledge is nothing”
(architect Jean Mignot, 1400 AD)
Theory helps designers do work better and more efficiently
1
2
3
Eames Chair & Ottoman
Barcelona Chair by Mies va der Rohe
Pantone Chair
The vocabulary is learned by looking. You must experience design. You must understand the elements of space that make it attractive. Understand why space works. If you experience poor quality space and know the reason why it is poor, you can use this experience to perform better work.
Vocabulary enables you to analyze existing space and effectively design new ones.
Do not try to teach design. Teach Principles.
Design Concepts
Frank Lloyd Wright
To be original is to return to the origin.
Antonio Gaudi
Primary Elements
The Great Depression hit as the finishing touches were being put on three record-breaking buildings in New York: 40 Wall Street, the Chrysler Building and the Empire State Building, which were all completed between 1929 and 1931, Barclays noted in a Jan. 10 report.
The economic and oil crises of the 1970s coincided with the completion of the twin towers at New York's World Trade Center, in 1972 and 1973, and Chicago's Sears Tower in 1974.
The Asian financial crisis hit as Kuala Lumpur's Petronas Towers were finished in 1997.
Dubai's $4.1 billion Burj Khalifa, completed in 2010, is now the world's tallest building. As it was being built, Dubai nearly went bust and the world slid into the Great Recession.
Indicates a position in space
point
prime generator of form
has no dimension
static & directionless
point extended
line
length
direction
position
}
properties
line extended
plane
length & width
shape
surface
}
properties
orientation
position
plane extended
volume
length & width & depth
form & space
surface
}
properties
orientation
position
Column of Marcus Aurelius
Piazza Colonna, Rome, A.D. 174
Obelisk of Luxor
Place de la Concorde, Paris
Selim Mosque
Edirne, Turkey
A.D. 1569-75
Salginatobel Bridge, Switzerland, 1929-30
Robert Maillart
Katsura Imperial Villa, Kyoto, Japan
17th Century
Caryatid Porch, Erechtheion, Athens, 421-405 B.C.
Mnesicles
Seagram Building, New York City, 1956-58
Mies van der Rohe & Philip Johnson
and Elements
Full transcript