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TOK Natural Science Presentation
Transcript of TOK Natural Science Presentation
No technology required
Importance of classification to identify all species, still many that haven't been accounted for
Simply sense perception
Continuation of documentation through traditional scientific method Are knowledge claims made by the use of technology as reliable as knowledge claims made by direct observations of the senses? Observations in Science Benefits of Sense Perception in Relation to Knowledge Claims made through Scientific Observations Approach of KI from different perspective: Limitations of Technology in Relation to Knowledge Claims made through Scientific Observations Discoveries using technology still come from the base set by other previously encountered findings and technologies.
There are always precursors to every invention.
So is the use of technology in obtaining knowledge in science anything new? Benefits of Technology in Relation to Knowledge Claims made through Scientific Observations Approach of KI from different perspective: Harms of Sense Perception in Relation to Knowledge Claims made through Scientific Observations The Scientific Method Real-Life Situation Questions Raised from Real-Life Situation Knowledge Issue Hilla and Amala Treatment of Knowledge Issue How is this KI relevant to the real-life situation? Personal Involvement Technology in Biology How do knowledge claims made from observations made with sense perception and reasoning differ from knowledge claims made from observations assisted by technology? Development and challenges made toward the cell theory
New technology provided new information that negated certain preconceptions
RLS: Research in Genetic Modification
Theory of cloning disproved
Widely believed that only undifferentiated
cells could be cloned
Dolly's genetic information came from the nucleus of a differentiated udder cell “The production of Dolly showed that genes in the nucleus of such a mature differentiated somatic cell are still capable of reverting to an embryonic totipotent state, creating a cell that can then go on to develop into any part of an animal.”
Previously believed theories: disproved and replaced
Can progress and improvement be made in science with sense perception instead of technology, or are both necessary and mutual components? The use of today's modern technology provides scientists with a new extent of detail available for investigating.
According to an article from the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States "Research not based on specific hypotheses and carried out by using methods to analyze a complete set of genes or proteins has been termed “discovery science,” a moniker that comes uncomfortably close to suggesting that traditional research is incapable of discoveries." Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR), as mentioned before, is a technological achievement, however:
The idea and essence of PCR came from the traditional scientific method:
How did his senses and his interpretation of the information around him aid in his discovery? "My little silver Honda's front tires pulled us through the mountains. My hands felt the road and the turns. My mind drifted back into the laboratory. DNA chains coiled and floated. Lurid blue and pink images of electric molecules injected themselves somewhere between the mountain road and my eyes.
I see the lights on the trees, but most of me is watching something else unfolding.
So I considered other ways to get rid of deoxynucleoside triphosphates.
Klenow! That would polymerise them, given an oligomer to start with and some single-stranded DNA for a template. Klenow was the polymerase that I had planned to use anyhow. How clever." Makes unexpected findings possible. With the traditional scientific method it is not as easy to encounter breakthroughs like the establishment of PCR. Tech allows more efficient, faster, easier ways to experiment with hypotheses.
Is it beneficial to gain knowledge faster? Double-Edged Sword Hierarchy of Classification Example: the Human Genome Project Limitations:
depletion of resources
the amount of detail might not be wanted Bibliography Observations through Technology
Pros and Cons
Observations through Sense Perception
Pros and Cons Fields, Stanley. "The interplay of biology and technology ." Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences . Version vol. 98, no. 18. PNAS, n.d. Web. 14 May 2013. <http://www.pnas.org/content/98/18/10051.long>.
Mullis, Karry. "Polymerase Chain Reaction: Making DNA Accessible." Dr. Kary Banks Mullis. N.p., n.d. Web. 12 May 2013. <http://www.karymullis.com/pcr.shtml>.
Rutigliano, Annabella. "Anorexia Nervosa: An issue of control." Serendip Studio. N.p., n.d. Web. 11 May 2013. <http://serendip.brynmawr.edu/bb/neuro/neuro03/web2/arutigliano.html>.
Clegg, C. J. (2010). Biology for the IB Diploma (5th impr. ed.). London: Hodder Education part of Hachette Livre. The scientific method is a procedure followed to find new knowledge of an unknown phenomenon.
Steps that are followed: observations
making a hypothesis
retesting it Sense perception calls for the interpretation of sensory information from the world
Reality may be distorted by our senses because we perceived things differently from one another
Not quantifiable or falsifiable
Observations made do not lead to real KCs Knower's Perspective Interactionist approach